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Ye Countie of Albemarle in Carolina
DECEMBER 3, 1664. PETER CARTERET'S APPOINTMENT AS COUNCILLOR AND ASSISTANT GOVERNOR FOR ALBEMARLE.
Original document on vellum with a portion of the Proprietors’ wax seal remaining. One page, 13 x 7½ inches,1 plus a margin of 1½ inches turned up at the bottom.
Of the eight Lords Proprietors only seven signed this document. Sir William Berkeley was absent in Virginia, where he was governor.
EDWARD Earle of Clarendon Lord high Chancellor: of England, George Duke of Albemarle Capt: Generall of all his Majties: forces in the kingdomes of England Scotland and Ireland and Mastr. of the Horse William Lord Craven John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley Chancellor of his Maties: Exchequer, Sir George Carteret Knight & Baront: vice chamberlaine of his Mate, household, Sr: William Berkeley Knight & Sr: John Colleton Knight and Baronett, The true and absolute Lords Proprietors: of all the Province of Carolina,//.
TO OUR TRUSTY and well beloved Peter Carteret2 Esquire Greeting &c. WEE being well assured of your wisedome prudence and  integritie, Have thought best and doe by these Pr.sents nominate, constitute and appoint you dureing our pleasure, to bee one of our Councellors: for the affaires of the county of Albemarle, and to bee Assistant to such person or persons as wee have nominated and appointed, or from time to time shall nominate and appoint to bee our Governor: or governors: of our said countie for the time being: And by these prsents, Doe authourize and require you to putt in executõn and observe and follow such orders and directions as you shall from time to time receive from us As to the office and dutie of our Councellor, and assistant to our said Governor: doth apperteine, and belong. Given under our great seale of our said Province, The Third -//-//-// Daye of December - in the yeare of our Lord 1664.
Clarendon E Albemarle Craven, Jo Berkeley Ashley
G Carteret Jno Colleton
DECEMBER 3, 1664. PETER CARTERET'S APPOINTMENT AS SECRETARY AND CHIEF REGISTRAR FOR ALBEMARLE.
Original document on vellum with a portion of the Proprietors’ wax seal remaining. One page, 13¼ x 8¾ inches, plus a margin of one inch turned up at the bottom.
Edward Earle of Clarendon Lord high Chancellor: of England George Duke of Albemarle Captaine Generall of all his Maties: forces in the kingdomes of England Scotland and Ireland and Master of the horse; William Lord Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley Chancellor: of his Maties: Exchequer, Sr: George Carteret Knt: and Barontt: Vice Chamberlyn of his Maties: household Sir William Berkeley Knight, and Sr: John Colleton Knt. and Barontt: the true and absolute Lords Proprietors: of all the Province of Carolina.
TO OUR TRUSTIE and welbeloved Peter Carteret Esqr: greeting &c. Wee being well assured of your wisdome, prudence & integritie Have thought fitt & doe by these prsents nominate, constitute, & appoint you during or pleasure, our Secretary & chiefe Register  for our countie of Albemarle in ye Province aforesaid, hereby authorizing you & giving you full power to bee prsent att all meetings of or: governor: and Councell of ye said countie, and to take & keep an exact Register of all theire acts orders & constitutions, As alsoe to receive from or Surveyor genall: of the County aforesaid. All certificates of land by him laid out & surveyed, either for us in pticular or for any other psons according to ye warrt: from or: Governor: & Councell or ye major pte of them And ye same Certificates carefully to register & file in yor: office And thereupon by virtue of such warrt: as you: shall receive from or: said Governor: & Councell or ye major pte of them, To draw upp such lease or leases, conveyance & assurances of land from us & in our names as shall accord wth: sayd Certificte. & ye forme of assurances by us prscribed, Which being signed by our Governor: & Councell or major part of them & sealed with our seale of ye said county according to or said prscripcons, you shall carefully inroll ye same in yor said office that recourse may bee thereunto had upon all occasions: And these & all other act & acts thing & things wch: doe & shall belong & apyteine to ye office of our Secretary & Register within our said county you are faithfully to doe and performe (according to such orders & instructions as you shall receive from us or or: Governor, or or: governor & Councell or ye major pt of them) to ye best of yor: judgmt: & skill: And for yor doing ye same or any of them you: shall receive such salleries fees & pquisite as by us & our generall Assembly of ye said county shalbe appointed, & none other: Given under or: great seale of our said Province ye: Third -// day of December, in the yeare of our Lord 1664.
Clarenden E Albemarle Craven Jo Berkeley Ashley
G Carteret Jno Colleton
SEPTEMBER 9, 1665; SEPTEMBER 26, 1665. TWO LETTERS FROM SIR JOHN COLLETON TO PETER CARTERET AT COLLETON ISLAND, ALBEMARLE, CAROLINA.
The first letter is a contemporary copy, unsigned. The second is in the same hand and signed by Colleton. Fragment of a small  wax seal with arms remains. One large sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 8¼ x 12¾ inches.
Exon this 9th of 7ber 1665/1
I have yors: of ye 6th: of May last to my selfe & Yor: othr: to my Lord Berkeley & Compy: by wch: I pceave you finde or: business in a very bad Condicon, for wch I am in a greate measure to bla[me] Capt: Whittie,2 whoe made us pay for 100 breeding sowes, wth piggs 10 boares 10 Cowes wth calfe & a bull a horse & a mare, put on Colleton Island,3 Wch it seems never came there, besides wch: wee pd: to ye overseers frind heare, whoe hath played ye Knave, & suffered all or: business to gee to wrack, ye accot: will show you all this, of wch I hope you will call for an acco: of ye ovrseer, left by Capt: Whittie, & pay nor ye oths: imployees any thing, untill you have a good acco: as for ye Island I saw onely wth Capt: Whitties eyes, heard with his eares, whoe prtendes he hah beene over it, & rendres it to me, & I suppose to you to bee a most brave & ffertill Island, & I am Confident hee beleived it, for he prest for a vessell wth Salt to fetch thence 30 tones of  hoggs flesh, wth I put of desiring firs—to heare from you, & now there is noe more, to bee thought of yt: yet a whyle, In ye meane time I hope you. will inquire after ye Stocke wee have paid for, & place on ye Island if you see reason for it, & more whereby wee may have a quantity of Hoggs flesh, wch will soonest come to bare to send to Barbados wch will pduce us Neagroes & Sarvts: to rayse a plantacon, wee ye ptners are now devided into Sevrll: Cuntryes, by reason of ye Sickness, since yor depture, I thincke ye Earle of Craven is added to us, see yt wee cannot give you a joynt ordr: in our affaire, but I shall give you my oppinion, wch is yt you doe yt. wch you conceave may bee most for or: advantage, in placeing the hoggs & Catle where you thincke best, & makeing such Inclosyers as you conceave fitt, unless ye tobacco of these pts bee much better then yt of Virginia, I conceave Little good will be done thereby, however you may plant some amongst yor Corne, wch is done undr: ye same Clearing of grounds but yt for a tryall, ye hoggs flesh will bringe us prsent pfitt, if easye to be raysed, yr vinnyard ye next & mere advantagious, if you have not to much raynes when ye Grapes ripen, if yt bee Natturall you will make no good wine I feare, you knew how Capt: Whittie magnified ye Cuntry for all intent & purposes; I am troubled to finde/yt you, doe not enlarge upon ye Comendacon thereof. If powells point4 bee soe good land as you seeme to beleive it to bee, you shall doe well to take it up, wee shall gett agrant from ye Lorde, speake to ye Govnor: from me yt it be reserved for our: Compa: wee are now 4 ingaged vizt: my Lord Craven my Lord Berkeley yor: unckle & my selfe, if it bee soe good & soe Convenient, sett a stop upon it, untill wee cann gett a grant from ye Lord, wch we shall doe assoone as wee cann meete, ye greate plague in & about London keeps us a Sundr: as to ye peoples complaynt of finding it hard, yt they shalbe obliged to keep there pporcon of people on their land, I would fayne know wt there land signifies wth out people, unlesse bee to lett to othrs: & is it reasonable yt a few should take up all ye Land, & become Lord & ye Cuntry unstrenkthened & unpeopled, they wilbe poore Lord & wth a greate deale of land [worth] nothing whereas if they will people as they goe, there Collony wilbe safe, it will bringe trade & shiping, & make Labor & land of vallew otherwayse come to nothing, beleive it Sr: ye way of ye Virginia Setlemt: is pnissious to ye planters of little good or advantage to ye  kinge or his people, pray therefore thincke of ye Barbadoe Industry there way and manner of liveing, workeing & Contriveing, they worke ye yeare throughout, ye Virginians as I am informed but halfe ye yeare, when wee cann meete wee shall Indeavor: to give ye Govnor: Councell & assembly such Sattisfaccon to there demande as wee hope will pleas them, I am sorry to heare yt Sickness takes of there Sarvte: I hope they meane in Virginia & not in Carolina, for att Cape fare wee finde it a most healthfull Cuntry, & Whittie pclames ye Cuntry you are in to bee ye most healthfulls in ye world, I shalbe glad to heare yor oppinien of it, & to know wt weathr: you had this past season for yor grapes, ye dryest weathr: when they are rype, makes ye best wine, if you finde yt by experience & Informacon, you may goe boldly on wth yor: Viniardes, I am Confident you had of ye seede of grapes from me wch are from ye ryne, & will pduce rare Cannary, I am from my bookes & papers & cannot tell wt you had, but if you had not I shall pcure some, Powder & shott to bey pvisions shall send you assoone as possible wch a Carpenter, if my ptners will stick to me you- shall want nothing, but pray give an ample acco: of ye Cuntrye; remember me kindly to Mr: Woodward5 to whome shall write p next not haveing time to write now; I am
Yor: Very Loveing frind—
Bristoll ye 26th of 7ber 1665/.
Thebefore goeing is Coppy of my Last sent you by way of Plymo: in wch if there bee any error in transcribing, I pray exscuse ye same, for I have not time to p use it, I have onely to add, yt I have desired Mr: Sershio: Cary,6 to send from hence to  Virginia, a barrell of powdr: & 400 of shott, & to consigne ye same to Govnor: Drummond7 in Virginia whence I have desired to Convey it to you, I pray looke after it, & lett it bee imployed for ye buying pvisions as you in yor last Lettr: pposed Where you sow ye seeds of Grapes, observe, wt sort thrives best—in ye Land you sow it in, & continew yt sort upon yt ground, & plant ye othr sorte in othr ground & where ever you finde, they thrive best there continew them, wch will pduce ye best wine, this I have had from an experianced pson yt lived long in ye Cannaryes, I rest
Yor: Very Loveing frind
To Mr: Peter Cartrett
NOVEMBER 2, 1665. JOHN WHITTY LETTER TO PETER CARTERET.
Original document on a single sheet of paper, 7¼ x 12 inches.
London 2d Novebr 1665
Mr Peter Carterett
my service presented & am glad of your well being in allbemarle I hope the Contry is pleasing to you Though all things  was nott in order att Colleton Island according to your Expectation & merritt: if god bles me well to that Contry I will Call Those persons to accott: that I left Intrusted — I have beene sufficiently plaid the Knave with uppon my owne accott besides the Iland: by Crafford1 & Bonnefeild2 I hope to be there about ye End of Aprill: I hope you finde my few freinds there Civell to you—
The King hath beene at Sallsbery and now att Oxford this 6 months by reason of ye plague hath beene very much at london since Aprill:
Sr George Carterett is with ye King we hope for his Comeing to hampton Court 8 days hence. Your younger Brother that was Leiuetenant in ye straits is now Capt of a friggatt in ye service mr Sherminton & his wife3are both dead of ye sickness all ye proprietors are with ye King but my lord Duke of allbemarle whoe acts here in all things for the King Comit you to god & rest
Sr yor frind & servant
For peter Carterett
MARCH 7, 1666. SIR JOHN COLLETON LETTER TO PETER CARTERET.
In a contemporary hand, perhaps that of a secretary, signed by Colleton. One large sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 7 5/8 x 11 7/8 inches.
The year in the date of this letter is written 1665/6 because the new year in England began on March 25 at this time. Most European countries changed to begin the new year on January 1 during the sixteenth century and Scotland conformed to this practice in 1600. England, however, did not change until 1752. Many letters and other documents dated during the period January 1 through March 24 show both years. The letter of ye 26th of 7ber would be September 26, 1665, and it is the one in document no. 3.
St: Jameses1 this 7th: of March 1665/6
Mr: Peter Carterett
My last Unto you was from Bristoll of ye 26th of 7ber Accompaning a barrell of powdr: & 5th: of shott, wch I ordrd: Mr: Shershaw Cary to ship & Consigne Governor Drumond in Virginia to be sent you: I hoape you have recd: wth my advice to plant ye Grape seede in ye ground it likes best, & when those seede pduce vynes to plant ye slipps or cuttings of them; for some are of oppinion yt ye vyne wch ye seede pduceth will not bare Grapes well but ye slipps or Cutings will; when you plant any vynes, plant sevrll: sorte in sevrll: sorte of ground, & where you finde any sort to exceede ye rest in growing yt is an Agumt: yt/these vynes likes ye ground well, upon wch you are to Coutinew yt sort of grape in yt ground & soe eavery sort where ye vynes thrive ye: most; now to answr: yors: of ye 6th: of May & 20th: of June I say:
That wee desire you to gett ye Catle Hoggs horse & mare, & other things from those yt ought to make them good unto us for wee have pd: Capt: Whittye for them—& if you finde yt Capt: Whittye ought to make good any thing let us know wt it is yt wee may demand & prcure its vallew heare I conceive it very necessary,  yt wee have two or three stronge lusty mares put on or: ground & a lusty stoud horse for to breede, you well know wt a Comodity horses are at Barbados, if they be to be had Cheap at Virginia, you may buy some there & draw upon us, but they must be stronge for worke; Its my oppinion yt you stocke Colleton Islande wth Cowes bulls horses & Mares to run & breede there; Capt: Whitty telling mee yt its a very pper place for yt purpose, & yt there is exceeding good ground for them to feede on; & yt you plant yor: Corne on ye Mayne land & likewayse yor: vinyarde; & yt you: place yor: hoggs on ye poynt betweene ye northrivr:2 & Pescoetanke3 river, where there is a Narrow of about 2 myles through wch you may runn afence & keepe in yor: hoggs wthin 10000 acres of land, you know Wt a Comodity hoggs flesh is at Barbados & beefe Likewayse, & ye lands being once stockt ye: Increase wilbe greate, wth Little Charge and troble, but ye fencing of ye poynt aforesd: ye Island ye Sea hath forced, then may ye Imploy yor: strenkth about ye vynyard & betweene ye rowes of vynes plant tobacco & Corne, wee are heare in great distraccons by reason, of ye warr wth ye French & Dutch otherwayse I would send you 10 or 20 hands more, wherefore make sure of pvizions for more people, for its not safe to depend on beying, & wee shall when you are ready send more hands wth: Clothing & tooles necessary; Capt: Whitty tells me yt hee hath a Carpenter & Cooper there, I mean in Albemarle: wch: you may make use of: I desire you to send a small Caske of wine of ye grape of ye Country assoone as possible, let it bee well made & have its Naturall & full workeing & lett it be put into avery sweete Tite Caske & yt Caske put into another Caske - whereby it may not be abused at Sea; these grapes planted abroad & managed, will make asort of wyne now most in request heare vizt: a rufe wyne, I desiring to heare from you by all occations I Rest
My Service to Govnor. Drumond to whome
Yor. Affect: frind & Sarvant
To Peter Carterett Esq.r
OCTOBER 8, 1667. LORDS PROPRIETORS’ COMMISSION TO SAMUEL STEPHENS, GOVERNOR OF ALBEMARLE.1
Original document on one sheet of vellum, 26 x 18¼ inches, plus a margin of 3 inches turned up at the bottom. Attached to it is the six-page document described here as no. 7. The seal for these two documents is now detached, but broken fragments accompany them in a fine white leather pouch.
It will be noted that the signature of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, is missing from this document. He was dismissed from public office by the king in August, and charges of treason were drawn up against him by the House of Commons. The signature of Peter Colleton appears here for the first time. At his father’s death in 1666 he succeeded him as a Proprietor.
GEORGE Duke of Albemarle Master of his Majestyes Horses EDWARD Earle of Clarendon WILLIAM Earl of Craven JOHN Lord Berkley ANTHONY Lord Ashley Chancellor of the Exchequer Sr GEORGE Carteret Vice Chamberlaine of his Majestyes Houshold Sr WILLIAM Berkeley Knight And Sr PETER  Colleton2 Baronet The true and absolute Lords Proprietors of all the Province of Carolina
To our Trusty and Wellbeloved Samuel Stephens3 Esquire Governor of our County of Albemarle and the Isles and Isletts within Tenn Leagues thereof And to our Trusty and Wellbeloved our Councllor and Assistants to our Said Governor Greeting.
BEE IT KNOWNE unto all men That Wee the said Lords and absolute Proprietors of the County within the Province aforesaid ffor divers good Causes and Considerations But most Especially out of the Trust and confidence reposed in you our said Governor and Councellor for the faithfull Management of the power and Authority by us to you given to the best avaise and Improvement of our Interest and Dominion in the said County of Albemarle and Isles and Isletts aforesaid And for the best avaise and Improvement of the Interest Liberty Propriety and Defence of all Such as Shall Plant and Inhabitt there HAVE given graunted And by these presents doe give and graunt (during our pleasure) Unto you our Said Governor. by and with the Consent of our Councell or any Three of the Six or ffoure of a greater Number full and absolute power and Authority for us and in our names to Lett Sett Convey and Assure Such Lands in our Said County to Such Person and Persons and for Such Estate and Estates and with Such Provisors Condicõns and Lymittacõns as wee by our  Instruccons and Concessions hereunto annexed have directed And as you Shall bee directed by such other Instruccõns and Rules as from tyme to tyme you Shall receive from us and not other wise Hereby Rattifying and Confirming whatsoever you shall doe Pursuant to the said Instruccons and Concessions and to Such Instruccons Rules and Direccons as aforesaid HE ALSOE to make doe performe and Execute all and singular Act and Acts thing and things powers and Authorityes whatsoever which wee our Selves may can might or could doe in for concerning or Relateing unto the Government both Civill and Millitary of the Said County and Isles and Isletts aforesaid By virtue of the Letters Pattents of his most Excellent Majesty Charles the Second King of England Scotland ffrance and Ireland defender of the faith bearing date att Westminster the Twentyeth day of June in the Seaventeenth Yeare of his Reigne To bee exercised nevertheless according to Such Instruccõns and with Such Lymittacõns Restriccõns Condicõns and Provisoes as in these presents and hereafter contayned Hereby Rattifying Confirming and allowing all and every Such Act and Acts thing and things which our Said Governor and our Said Councellor in our names Shall doe in the premisses Pursuant to the Authority hereby comitted PROVIDED and it is hereby declared That this present deed or any thing therein contersined doth not Extend nor shall it bee deemed or taken to Extend to give up to our said Governor or our said Councellor or either or any of them any power or Authority to make any manner of graunts Conveyance devise or other like disposicõn of any Land lying within or being part of the said County Isles or Islets aforesaid But according to our Instruccõns and Concessions And reserving for every Acre English measure which by virtue of this Authority you shall Graunt to any Person or Persons One halfe penny of lawfull money of England Yearly Rent to bee payd to us our heires or Assignes upon every Twenty ffifth day of March According to the English Account The first payment whereof to beginn on the Twenty ffifth day of March which shalbee According to the English Account in the yeare of our Lord One Thousand Six hundred and Seaventy PROVIDED ALSOE that noe order or lawes made or to bee made by virtue of this our Authority Shalbee in force as lawes for any longer terme then one yeare and a Halfe Within one yeare of which tyme then Shalbee Transmitted and reported to us for our Assent which being given they Shalbee in Continuall force till Expired by theire owne  Lymittacõn or by Act repealed PROVIDED ALSOE that the Executive part of all the Said Powers hereby given Shalbee made and exercised by yor own said Governor by and with the advice and consent of the Major part of our Councell AND IF it shall happen that our said Governor or any of our Said Councell shall depart or bee absent att any tyme from our said County unless other Provision bee by us made That then it shall and may bee lawfull to and for our Governor and Councell or the Major part of them Resident in our said County to Nominate Elect and appoint any such able Person or Persons as in theire discretion shall to them Seeme most fitt to Serve in and supply the places of such of the said Persons respectively during theire absence from our said County Giving and graunting unto him or them Soe Chosen during the absence of our said Governor or Councellor as full large and ample Powers as wee by these prsents to our said Governor or Councellor have given Any thing in this present Comission in anywise to the Contrary notwithstanding AND ALSOE in Case of death of the Governor or death or Removerall of any Member of our said Councell from tyme to tyme to Nominate and Elect fitt and able Persons in theire Steade or places respectively which Persons soe Nominated and Chosen shall Exercise all Powers to these said Officers respectively belonging till our pleasure bee Signifyed to the Contrary GIVEN under our Greate Seale of our Said Province this Eighth day of October Anno Dom 1667.
OCTOBER 8, 1667. LORDS PROPRIETORS’ INSTRUCTIONS TO GOVERNOR SAMUEL STEPHENS.
Original document consisting of six large pages of watermarked paper, 11¾ x 14¾ inches. For further details see the description of document no. 6.
Instructions for our Governor of the County of Albemarle in the Province of Carolina;
Impa: You: are to take to you Six Councellors at least, twelve at most, or any eaven number betweene Six & twelve with: whose advice  and consent, or with at least three of ye Six or fouer of a greater number all being Summoned you are to governe according to ye Limitations and Instructions following during our Pleasure; The Cheife register or Secrytary, which we have Choosen or shall choose, wee fayleing yt you shall choose, shall keep exact Enteryes in faire bookes of all publicke affaires of sd: County, and to accoyde deceates and Law Suites shall record and Enter all grants of land from ye Lords to ye Planter, and all conveyances of Land, howse or howses, from man to man, as alsoe all Leases for Land, howse or howses, made or to be made by the Landlord, to any Tennant for more then one yeare, which conveyance or lease shalbe first acknowledged, by ye Grantor or Leasor, or Proved by the Oath of two Witnesses, to ye Conveyance or Lease, before the Governor or some cheife Judge of a Court for the time being, whoe shall undr: his hand, upon the backe side of the said Deede or Lease, attest the acknowledgmt or proofe as aforesaid, which shalbe a warrant for the Register to record the same, which Conveyance or Lease soe recorded shalbe good and effectuall in Law, notwithstanding any other Conveyance, Deede or Lease, for said Land howse or howses, or for any part thereof, although dated before ye Conveyance, Deede or Lease, recorded as aforesaid, and the said Register, shall doe all other thing or things, that wee by our Instructions shall direct, and the Governor Councell and Assembly shall ordayne, for the good and welfaire of the said County;
Item The Surveyor Generall that wee have Choosen or shall choose, wee fayleing that you shall choose, shall have power by himselfe or Deputy, to Survey, lay out and bound all such Lands, as shalbe granted from the Lords to the Plantors and all other Lands within the said County &c which may concerne particculer men, as he shalbe desired to doe and a particculer thereof certify to the Register, to be recorded as aforesaid: Provided that if the said Register and Surveyor or either of them shall soe misbehave themselves, as that the Governor and Councell or Deputy Governor and Councell or the Major parte of them shall finde it Reasonable to Suspend their actings in their respective Imploymente; it shalbe Lawfull for them soe to doe, untill further order from us;
Item, All Choyce of Officers made by you: shalbe for noe Longer time then during our Pleasure;
Item: Yourselfe Councellors, Assembly men, Secrytaryes Surveyors,  and all other Officers of trust shall Sware or Subscribe in a booke to be provided for that purpose, that they will bare trow alleagance to the Kinge of England his heires and Successors, and that they wilbe faithfull to the Interest of ye Lords Proprietors of the Province, and their heires Executors and assignes, and indeavor the peace and welfare of the said province: and that they will trewly and faithfully discharge their respective truste, in their respective offices, and doe equall Justice to all men, according to their skill and Judgment, without Corruption favor or affection; and the names of all that have sworne or subscribed, to be entered in a booke, and whosoever shall subscribe, and not sware, and shall vyolate his promise in yt Subscription shalbe Lyable to ye same punishmt: that the persons are or may bee, that hath sworne, and bee on his Oath;
Item That all persons that are or shal become Subiecte to the Kinge of England, and sware or subscribe alleagiance to the Kinge, and faithfulness to the Lords as a bove, shalbe admitted to plant, and become freemen of ye province, and Inioy the freedomes, and Immunityes hereafter Exprest, untill some stop or Contradiction be made by us the Lords or elce by the Governor Councill and Assembly, which shalbe in force untill ye Lords see cause to the contrary, Provided that such stop shall not any wayse preiudice the right or Continewance of any person, that hath beene receaved before such stop or order come from ye Lords or Generall Assembly;
Item. That noe person or persons quallified as aforesaid within the province, or all or any of ye Countyes before Exprest at any time, shalbe any wayse molested, [punished, or disqui]ted, or Called in question, for any differances in oppinion or practice in matter of religious [concernement whoe] doe not actually disturbe the civill peace of the said province Or County, but that all and every such person and persons, may from time to time and at all times, freely and fully have and Inioy his and their Judgemente, and Consiences in matter of religion, throughout all the said province, they behaveing themselves peaceably and quietly and not useing this Liberty to Lycentiousness to the Civill Iniury or out ward disturbance of Others, any Law Statute or Clause contained or to be contained, usuage or Customs of this realme of England to the contrary hereof in any wayse notwithstanding;
 Item And that noe pretence may be taken by us our heires or assignes, for or by reason of our Right of patronage, and powr :of advouson, Granted unto us by his maiestyes Letters pattente aforesaid to Infringe thereby the Generall clause of Liberty of Contience, aforementioned; Wee doe hereby Grant unto the Generall Assembly of the said Countyes power by act to constitute and appoint, such and soe many Ministers or Preachers, as they shall thincke fitt, and to Establish their maintenance, giving Liberty besides to any person or persons, to keepe and maintane what preachers or Ministrs: they Please;
Item That the Inhabitants being freemen or Cheefe agent to others of the County aforesaid doe assoone as this our Comission shall arrive; by virtue of a writt in our names, Sealed with our Seale of ye County and by you Signed, make Choyce of twelve Deputyes or representatives from amongst themselves, whoe being Choosen are to Joyne with you Our Governor and Councell for ye makeing such Lawes, Ordinances and Constitutions, as shalbe necessary for ye present good and welfaire of ye County aforesd: but assoone as parishes devizions tribes or districtions of the said County are made, That then ye Inhabitants or freeholders of the severall and respective parishes, tribes devizions or districtions of ye County aforesaid doe (by our weill & under our seale which wee Ingage shalbe in due time Issewed) annually meete on the first day of January and Choose two freeholders for each respective devizion tribe or parish, to be the deputyes or representatives of the same, which body of representatives or ye Maior: part of them shall with the Governor and Councill aforesaid be the Generall Assembly of the said County the Governor: or his deputy being present; unless they shall wilfully refuse, in which case they may appoint themselves a president during the absence of the Governor or his Deputy Governor;
Which Assembly are to have Power
To appoint their owne times of meeting, and to adiorne their sessions from time to time to such times and places as they shall thincke convenient, as also to assertaine ye number of their Quorum, provided that such numbers be not less then one third part of the whole, in whome or more shalbe the full power of the Generall assembly, vizt:
Item To Enact and make all such Lawes Acts and Constitutions as shalbe necessary for the well Government of the said Collony and them to repeale; Provided that the same be Consonant  to reason, and as neare as may be Conveniently agreeable to the Lawes and Customes of his Maiestyes Kingdome of England, Provided alsoe that they be not against the Interest of us the Lords Proprietors our heires or assignes, not any of these our present Concessions, Espetially that they be not against the Article for Liberty of Contience above mentioned wch Lawes &c soe made, shall receave Publication from the Governor and Councell (but as the Lawes of us and our Genrll: Assembly) and be in force for the space of one yeare and halfe and noe more, (unless confirmed by us) within which time they are to be presented to us our heires &c for our Rattification, & being Confirmed by us, they shalbe in contiewall force till Expired by their owne Limitacõn or by act of repeale in like maner as aforesd: to be passed and Confirmed;
Item By act as aforesaid to Constitute all Courte togeather, with the Lymite powers and Jurisdiccõns of ye Sd: Courte as alsoe ye severall Offices, number of Officers belonging to each of ye sd: respective Courte togeather with their Severall & respective Salleryes, fees and perquisites there appellations and dignityes, with the penaltyes that shalbe dew to them for breach of their Severall and respective dutyes and trusts;
Item By act as aforesaid to ley equall taxes and assesments equallily to rayse monyes or goods upon the Lands (excepting the Lands of us ye Lords Propryators before setling) or persons within the severall precinte, hundreds parishes, Manors, or whatsoever Other devizions shall hereafter be made and Established in the said County, as oft as necessity shall require, and in such manor as to them shall seeme most equall and easye for the said Inhabitants in ordr: to the better supporting of ye publicke Charge of the said Government, and for the mutuall safety defence and security of the said County;
Item By act as aforesaid to Erect within the said County such and soe many Barronyes and Mañors with there necessary Courts Jurisdictions, freedomes and priviledges as to them shall seeme Convenient, as alsoe to devide the said County into hundreds, parishes tribes or such other deviziouns and districtions as they shall thincke fitt, and the said devizions to distinguish by what names wee shall ordr: or direct, and in default thereof by such names as they please, as alsoe within any part of ye said County to Create and appoint, such as soe many ports harbours, Creekes and other places for ye Convenient Lading and unladeing  of goods and merchandize, out of shipes boates and other vessells, as they shall see Expedient, with such Jurisdictions priviledges and franchises to such ports &c belonging as they shall Judge most Conduceing to ye Genrll: good of ye said plantation or County;
Item By there Enacting to be Confirmed as aforesd: to erect Rayse and build within the said County or any part thereof, such and soe many forts, fortresses Castles Cittyes, Corporations, Burroughes, townes, villages, and other places of strength and defence, and them or any of them to Incorporate, wth: such Charters and Priviledges as to them shall seeme good; and our Charter will permitt and the same or any of them to fortifie and furnish, wth such proportion of Ordinance, powder, shott, armour, and all other weapons, Amunition and habilliments of Warr both offensive and defensive as shalbe thought Necessary and Convenient for ye Safety and welfaire of ye said County, but they may not at any time, demolish, dismantle or disfurnish the same without the consent of the Governor and the Maior parte of the Councell;
Item By act as aforesd: to Constitute trayne bands and Companyes with the number of Soldiers for the Safety strength and defence of the said County and province, and of the forts Castles, Cittyes &c, to Suppress all Mutinyes and Rebellions, to make warr offensive and defensive, with all Indyans Strangers and foreignors: as they see cause; and to pursue an Enemy by Sea as well as by land if neede bee out of the Limitts and Jurisdictions of said County wth the pticcular consent of ye Governor and under the conduct of Our Governor or whome hee shall appoint:
Item By Act as aforesaid to give unto all Strangers as to them shall seeme meete, a Natturallysation and all such freedomes and priviledges within the said County as to his Maiestyes Subiects doe of right belonge they Sweareing or Subscribing as aforesaid which said Strangers soe Natturallysed and priviledged shall alsoe have the same Imunityes from Customes as is granted by the Kinge to us, and by us to the said County, and shall not bee Lyable to any other Customes, then the rest of his Maiestyes Subiects in said Countye are, but be in all respects accompted in that County aforesaid, as the King’s Natural Subiects;
Item By Act as aforesaid to prescribed the quantityes of Land, which shalbe from time to time alloted to every head free or  Saervt. Male or female, and to make and ordayne rules for the casting of Lotts for Land and leying out of the same, Provided that they doe not in there said prscriptions exceed the Severall proportions, which are hereby granted by us to all persons arriveing in the said Countyes or adventuring theithr: that is to say Sixty acres to every freeman, and as much to his wife, the like to each freewoman that arrives in said County and brings Servants to Setle; and Sixty acres to every Master or Mistris for every Man Sarvant hee or they shall bringe or send, Armed wth a good fierlocke or matchlocke bore twelve bullets to the pound tenn pound of powdr: and twenty pound of bullets wth: match proportionable, fifty acres for every other sort of Sarvant, and fifty acres for every Sarvant for his or her proper use and behoofe when their time of Servitude is Expired; Provided yt all Lands whatsoever soe Setled and planted shall afterwards from time to time for ye Space of thirteene yeares from the date hereof beholds upon the Condition aforesaid of Continewing one able man Sarvant or two such weaker Sarvants as aforesd: on every one hundred acres, a Mastr: or Mistrs: shall posses, besides wt was granted for his or her owne person, Infailer of wch: upon notification to the present Occupant or his assignes there shalbe three yeares time given to such for their compleating the said Number of persons, or for their Sayle or other disposure of such parte of there, lands as are not soe peopled, wch in wch: time of three yeares, if any person holding any Land shall fayle by himself, his agents Executors: or assignes or some other way; to provide such number of persons, unless ye Genrll: assembly shall without respect to poverty, Judge yt it was impossible for ye party soe fayleing to keep or procure his or her number of Sarvants to be provided as aforesaid; in such case wee the Lords to have power of disposeing of soe much of such land as shall not be planted with its dew number of persons as aforesd: to some other yt will plant ye same;./.
Except those Lands wch are descended to Orphants by Inheritance, whome wee hereby allow three yeares time after their comeing to ye age of twenty one yeares for the peopleing of their land as aforesd: and then in case of failer wee ye Lords to have powr: of disposure of their Lands as of ye Lands of other persons; Provided alwayse that any person, whoe hath a stock of Catle, sheepe or such like on his hands, shall for every greater sort of Catle, which he hath at the time of such forfeiture, horses, kine, &c retane two acres, & for every Lessor sort as sheepe, hoggs  &c one acre; Provided alsoe that noe persons arriveing into the said Collony wth purpose to Setle (they being Subiect or Naturallysed as aforesd:) be denyed a grant of such proportions of Land as at ye time of their arrivall and due to themselves or Sarvants by Concession from us as aforesd: but have full Lycence to take up and Setle the same in such order and manor: as is granted or prescribed, All lands notwithstanding (the power in the Assembly aforesaid) shalbe taken up by warrant from the Governor: and Confirmed by the Governor: and Councell, under our Seale of ye County for that purpose provided in such order and meth-hood as shalbe sett downe in this declaracion, & more at large in ye Instructions, to ye Governor & Councill,/
Lastly To Enact Constitute and Ordaine all such other Lawes Acts and Constitucons as shall or may be necessary for ye good prosperity and Setlement of ye said County, excepting what by these prsents are Excepted and Conformeing to ye Limitations herein Expressed.,/.
To see yt all Courts Established by the Lawes of the Generall Assembly and all Ministers and Officers Civill or Millitary doe and Execute there Severall dutyes and Offices, respectively according to the Lawes in force, and to punish them for Swarveing from the Lawes or acting contrary to their trust as the Nature of there offence shall require;
Item According to the Constitutions of the Generall assembly to Nominate and Comissionate the Severall Judges Members and Officers of Courte whether Magistraticall or Ministeriall, and all other Civill Officers, as Justises, Coroners &c, and there Comissions & powers and Authorityes to revoake at pleasure, Provided yt they appoint none but such as are freeholdrs: in the County aforesd: unless ye Generall Assembly Consent;./.
Item According to the Constitutions of the General Assembly to appoint Courts and Officers in cases Criminall and to Impower them to Inflict penaltyes upon Offenders against any of the Lawes inforce in the said County, as the said Lawes shall ordayne wheithr: by fine, Imprisonment Banishment Corporall punishment; or to the takeing away of Member, or of life it selfe;./.
Item To place Officers and Soldiers for the Safety, Strength and defence, of the forts, Castles, Cittyes &c according to the numbr: appointed by the Genrll: Assembly, to nominate, place and Comissionate all Millitary Officers under the Governor whoe as Comander in Cheife is Comissionated by us) over the Severall  trayne bands and Companyes Constituted by the Genrll: Assembly, as Collonels Captaines &c and there Comissions to revoake at pleasure, ye Governor: Singley, or with the advice of his Councill, which wee advize him to take, to muster and trayne all the Soldiers, within the said County; to prosecute Warr, pursue an Enemy, Suppres rebellions and mutines, as well by Sea as Land; and to Exercise the whole Militia as fully as by Our Letters Pattents from ye Kinge, we cann Impowr. him or them to doe, Provided yt they appoint not Millitary Officrs: but wt are freeholdrs: in ye sd: County, unless ye Genrll: Assembly shall Consent;./.
Item Where they see cause after Condemnation to repreive, till ye Case may be presented with a Coppy of the whole tryall proceedings and proofes to the Lords, whoe will accordingly Either pardon or Comand Execution of ye Sentence on the Offender, whoe is in the meane time to be keept in Safe Custody, till the pleasure of the Lords be knowne ;./.
Item In case of death or other removeall of any of the Representatives within the yeare to Issew Sumons by writt to ye respective devizion or devizions for which he or they were Chosen, Comanding ye freeholdrs: of the same to Choose others in their Steade ;./.
Item To make warrants and Seale grants for Lands according to our Consessions and ye prescriptions, by the advice of the Genrll: Assembly in such forme as shalbe at large sett downe in our Instruccons to ye Governor: in his Comission, and which are hereaftr: expressed;./.
Item To Act and doe all other thing or things that may Conduce to the Safety peace and well Government of the said County, as they shall se fitt, soe as they be not Contrary to the Lawes of ye County aforesaid./.
ffor the better Securing of the Propryetes of all the Inhabitants
You are not to Impose nor Suffer to be Imposed any taxe Custome, Subsidy tallage assesment or any other duty whatsoever upon any Culler or pretence upon ye said County, and the Inhabitants thereof other then what shalbe imposed by the Authority and consent of the Generall Assembly, and then only in maner as aforesaid;./.
Item You are to take care that land quietly held, planted and possessed Seaven years, after its being first duely Surveyed by the Surveyor Generall; or his order shall not be Subiect to any  review resurvey or alteration of bounds on what pretence soever by any of us, or any Officers or Ministers under us;
Item You are to take care that noe man if his Catle stray range or graze on any ground within the said County not actually appropriated or set out to perticculer persons, shalbe Lyable to pay any trespass for the same to us our heires &c; Provided that Custome of Comons be not thereby pretended to, nor any person hindred from takeing up and appropryateing any Lands soe grazed upon, and that noe person purposely doe Suffer his Catle to graze on such Lands;./.
Item It is Our will and desire that the Inhabitants of said County and Adventurers theither shall Inioy all the same Imunityes from Customes, for Exporting Certine goods from these Realmes of England &c theither, as the Kinge hath beene gratiously pleased to grant to us, as alsoe for ye Incorragement of the Manufactors of Wine Silke, Oyle, Ollives, fruits, almonds &c menconed in the Pattent have priveledge for bringing them Custome free into any of his Maiestyes Dominions for the same time, and upon the same tearmes, as wee Ourselves may by Our Pattent doe;./.
And that the Planting of the County aforesaid may be the more spedily Promoted;
You are to take notice that wee doe hereby graunt unto all persons whoe have already adventured theither or shall transeport themselves or Sarvants theither, before the five and Twentith day of December wch: shalbe in the yeare of Our Lord One thousand Six hundred Sixty and Nine, these following proportions of Land, vizt. Sixty acres English measure, to every freeman and as much to his wife if hee have one; and to every free-woman that already is or shall arrive into the said County with a Sarvant or Sarvants to plant, within the time aforesaid Sixty acres like measure; to a Master or Mistris for every able man Sarvant he or shee shall bringe or send as aforesaid being each of them armed wth a good fierlocke or matchlocke bore, twelve bullets to the pound, tenn pound of powder and twenty pound of bullets with match proportionable, sixty acres; And fifty acres like measure for every other sort of Sarvant, he or shee shall bringe within the time aforesaid; and to every of these Sarvants soe transported within the time aforesaid fifty acres like measure to their proper use and behoofe, when their time of Servitude is Expired; all which Lands and all other that shalbe possessed there, are to be held on the same tearmes and Conditions as is  before mentioned, and as is hereafter in the following Paragraphes more at Large Exprest;
And that the Lands may be the more Regulerly laid out and all persons the better
asertained of there tytles and possessions./.
You are to take care and direct that all lands be devided by Generall Lotts none Less then two thousand two hundred acres nor more then twenty two thousand acres in each lott, except in Cittyes townes &c, and the neare Lotts of towneships, and that the same be undecimally devided one Eleaventh part by lott to us, our heires and assignes, the remaynor to persons as they come to plant ye same in such proportions as is allowed;./.
Item That you or whome you shall depute in Case of death or absence; if some one be not before Comissionated by us as aforesaid, doe give to every person to whome Land is due, a Warrant Signed and Sealed by yor: selfe, and the Maior parte of yor: Councill, and directed to the Surveyor Generall or his deputy, Comanding him to ley out Lymitt and bound [blank] acres of Land (as his due proportion is, for such a person in such alottment, according to which warrant the Register have first recorded ye same, and attested the record upon the warrant; the Surveyor Generall or his Deputy shall proceed; and Certifie to the Cheefe Secrytary or register ye name of the person for whome he hath Leyed out land; by virtur of what authority ye date of the Authority or Warrant, the number of acres, the bounds and on what point of the Compas the Severall Lymitts there of lye, which Certificate ye Register is Likewaye to Enter in a booke to be prepared for that purpose, with an Alphabeticall table, referring to the booke, yt see the Certificate may be the easyer found; and then to fyle the Certificate, and the same to keepe Safely;./.
The Certificate being Entered a Warrant Comprehending all the perticculers of Land mentioned in the Certificate aforesaid is to be prepared by the Secrytary, and Signed and Sealed by you and yor: Councill or the Maior: part of them as aforesd: (they haveing seene the Entery) and directed to the Register or Cheefe Secrytary for his prepareing a Grant of the Land to the party, for whom it is leyed out, which Graunt shalbe in the forme following vizt
The Lords Propryators of the Province of Carolina doe hereby graunt unto A: B: of the County of Albemarle1 in the province  aforesaid, a plantation in the said County Contayning [blank] acres English measure, bounding (as in the said Certificate) to hold to him (or her) his (or her) heires or assignes for eaver, Yeilding and paying yearely to the said Lords Propryators their heires or assignes every five and twentith day of March according to the English acco: one halfe penny of Lawfull English mony for every of the said acres, to be holden of the Manor of [blank] in free and Comon Soccage, the first paymt: of which rent to begin on ye five and twentith day of March, which shalbe in the yeare of Our Lord One thousand Six hundred and Seaventy according to the English acco: Given under the Seale of the County of Albemarle the [blank] day of [blank] in ye year of Our Lord [blank]
To which Instrument the Governor: or his deputy hath hereby full Authority to put the seale of the said County and to Subscribe his name, and alsoe the Councell or Maior: parte of them, and to Subscribe there names, and then the Instrewment or Graunt is to be by the Register, recorded in a booke of records for that purpose, all which being done according to these Instructions, wee hereby declare; that the same shalbe effectuall in Law, for the Inioyment of the said plantation, and all the bennifitts and profitts of and in the same, Except one halfe parte of Mynes of Gold and Silver, paying the rent as aforesaid; Provided that if any plantation soe graunted, shall by the space of three yeares, be neglected to be planted wth a Suffitient Number of Servants, as is before mentioned that then it shalbe Lawfull for us otherwayse to dispose thereof, in whole or in parte, this graunt notwthstanding;./.
Wee doe also graunt Convenient proportions of Land for highwayes and for Streetes, not Exceeding one hundred foote in breadth in Cittyes townes villages &e for Churches, forts, wharfes, keyes harbours, and for publicke howses, and to each parish for the use of their Ministers one hundred acres, in such places as the Generall Assembly shall appoint;./.
Item you are to take notice that all such lands leyed out for the uses and purposes in the next preceeding artickle shalbe free and Exempt from all rents taxes, and other Charges or dutyes whatsoever payable to us our heires or assignes ;./.
Item That in leying out lands for Cittyes, townes villages, Burroughs or other hamlets the said Lands be undecimally devided, one Eleaventh part to be by lott laid out for us, and the rest devided to such as shalbe willing to build thereon; they  paying after the rate of one halfe penny p acre yearely to us, as for there other lands as aforesd: which said lands in Cittyes townes &c is to bee assured to each possessor: by the same way and Instrewment, as is before Mentioned;./.
Item, That all rules relateing to building of each streete, and quantity of ground to be alloted to each howse, within the said respective Cittyes, Burroughs and townes, be wholy left by act as aforesd: to the wisdome and discretion of ye Genrll Assembly;./.
Item, The Inhabitants of said County have free passage, through or by any Seas, Sounds, Creekes, Rivers, Rivelets &c in the said province of Carolina, through or by which they must necessaryly pass, to come from the Mayne Ocean to the County aforesaid or any parte of the Province aforesaid./.
MAY 1, 1668. LORDS PROPRIETORS’ LETTER TO GOVERNOR STEPHENS.
In a contemporary hand, signed by the Proprietors. One large sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 7 3/8 x 11¾ inches. The paper is somewhat mutilated.
Cockpitt1 this 10: of May 1668
In October last wee gave a Comission for yor: being Governor of ye County of Albemarle to Capt: Langstone2 to Convey unto you: wch: wee hope you have long since receaved; 
Since then wee have recd: a Petition from ye Grand Assembly of yt County signed by George Ketchmaid3 Speaker desiring yt ye Inhabitants of Albemarle may hold ye land upon ye same tearmes ye people of Virginia hold theirs, to wch: wee have consented as by our Grant herewith sent you: undr: our hands and ye Greate Seale of Our Province you: will pceive;
One Inconveniene wee doe foresee will happen unto you if some care be not by you: taken to prevent it yt is yt men will ingrose great quantities of land yt hath neither hands nor stocke of Catle to Manore it, wch: will make yor: habitation remote one from another & you by Consequence more Lyable to receive mischeife from ye Indyans, And ye good lands being ingrosed It will alsoe hinder ye peopleing of yor: County: Wherefore wee doe desire yt you: will amongst yor: selves make some Law for ye preventing of this Inconvenience which wee leave to ye Pticuler care of/you Our Govnor: to gett done;
Wee finde yt ye people complaine of an Inconveniency in ye takeing up their Land by allotmte: & are jealous yt by our reserveing to our Selves ye 11th: pte of said grand allotmt: of land some pte of their free hold is Indangered, to take of this complaint & Scruple, wee leave it to yor: selfe ye Councell &/ye Assembly to apoint such a Methood for ye takeing up of Land as you shall thincke most Pper for ye Safety & conveniency of ye Inhabitants;
And doe desire you forthwth: to sett a Pte as much Land for our use as may amount unto ye 11th: Pte of 1600 square miles (wch is ye quantity of ye whole County) in divers convenient places for planting yett such as may not incomodate ye people, this Land wee desire may be registred as Ours, & yt you will assoone as possible give us an acco: where it lyes & how bounded wee are
your loving friends
Samuell Steephens Esq
Nos. 9 and 10
OCTOBER 22, 1668. PETER COLLETON LETTERS TO PETER CARTERET.
No. 9, in a contemporary hand, is signed by Colleton, while No. 10 is wholly in Colleton’s hand. The latter is a duplicate of the former with the addition of a final sentence.
Each document is on a large sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages. No. 9 measures 75/8 x 12 inches, and No. 10 is 75/8 x 115/8. Both have fine impressions of arms in a wax seal.
St Jame’s this 22th of Octobr 1668
Yors of ye 25th of Aprill to my Father & of ye 18th to my selfe I have recd: by wch I pecive ye people are well sattisfyed wth mr Stephens for theire governor: The Lords are at psent dispersed as soone as wee have a meeting I shall endeavor to Gett ye Lds to pass ye act of yor assembly of ye 18th of Febry: 1667/8 though we have under our Broad Seal granted ye same thing already and sent it unto you by John Nixon1 Who went from hence bound directly to Albemarle & I hope is long since wth. you  I am glad you have found out a Whale ffishing2 I doe desire you to Continue it ffor our Shipps yt went to Greeneland tooke but one Whale last season soe that Oyle & Whalebone is at psent a great Comodity here & I conceive London is a better markett than Barbados, soe yt I desire you to send all you take here, And consigne it to mee, all wch I shall Lay out in supplyes for yor plantacõn & return to you. And when Sir Geo: Carteret (who is at psent in Ireland but expected home in three weeks) comes to Towne I shall take care for sending you some Cloathes &c Pray by ye next lett me have an Inventory of all ye Stock upon our plantacõn both on Colleton Island & ye Maine I wonder yt vermine Should destroy yr hoggs on ye Island, - me thinks ye Large Space of Water Should hinder their comeing over into ye Island And that if those beasts of Pray that are there were once destroyed noe more Should come there I am
Yor loveing frend
St James’es ye 22th Octobr 1668
Yors of ye 25th. of Aprill to my Father & of ye 18th to my Selfe I have received by wch pecive ye people are well - Sattisfyed wth mr Stephens for their Governor The Lords are att present dispersed as soone as we have a meeting I shall endeavor: the Lords to passe ye act of yor Assembly of ye 18th of Febry: 1667/8 Though we have under or broad Seale granted the same thing already & sent it unto you by John Nixon - who went from hence bound directly to Albemarle and I hope is Long since wth you —I am glad you have found out a Whale fishing I do desire you to Continue it for or Shipps - that went to Greenland tooke but one  Whale last Season soe that Oyle & whale bone is at psent a great Comodity here And I conceive London is a better Markett than Barbados soe yt I desire you to send all you take here & Consigne it to me; All wch I shall Lay out in supplyes for or Plantacõn & returne to you And when Sir Geo: Carterett (who is at psent in Ireland but expected here in three weekes) comes to towne I shall take care for sending you some Cloaths &c Pray by ye next lett me have an inventory of all ye Stock upon or: plantacõn both on Colleton Island & the maine I wonder yt vermin Should destroy yor Hoggs on ye Island me thinks ye Large space of water Should hinder there Comeing over into ye Island and that if those beasts of Prey that are there were once distroyed noe more Should come there. I Shall alsoe move that you may keep yor place though you doe remove into England for a time And shall consult wth Sir George & my lord Berkeley about a man to looke after or Plantacõn When yor time is out I am
yor loveing frend
OCTOBER 28, 1668. GOVERNOR SAMUEL STEPHENS WARRANT TO PETER CARTERET TO BE LIEUTENANT COLONEL OF ALBEMARLE FORCES.
Original document on vellum with a portion of the seal of the colony. The seal appears to be the same as the reverse of the Proprietors’ seal with its own reverse blank. One page, 15½ x 8¾ inches, plus a margin of 1¼ inches turned up at the bottom.
SAMUEL Stephens Esquire Governor: and commander in cheife of all the forces, of all the county of Albemarle under the Right  Honoble: the true and absolute Lords Proprietors of all the Province of Carolina ://:
TO MY TRUSTY and well beloved ffreind Leftenant Coll Peter Carteret Esqr: Greeting Accordinge to the power committed to me by the Right Honoble: the Lords, and absoelute Proprietors: of the Province aforesaid: But more out of the Especiall trust confidence and experience I have of your fidelity curcomspection couradge abilitye and good counduct I DOE HEAREBY nominate constitute; and appointe you Left: Col: under me of all the forces of the county aforesaid them to muster traine, and Exercize in the Art of Warr; and militarie Discipline And in all thinges to doe as any Leftenant Coll of any Regiment may or of Right Ought to doe to the resistings of all Enemies supresinge Insolencies mutinies and all rebelious persons whatsoever accordinge to such orders Implications and Directions as you shall from tyme to tyme receive from me; And to that End to Enlist the Inhabitants of the presincte of Passotancke: AND them to muster and traine upp ffower tymes a yeare soe that they may be in a redinesse att all time to attend my further comand as ocation shall require with fittinge Armes and Amunitions for the purpose aforesaid TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the said comand untill I or such comander in chiefe; by the Right Honoble: the Lords Proprietors: Appointement shall signifie theire pleasure to the contrarie; And all Inferior: Oficers and other persons whatsoever are Hereby strictly required and comanded to yeild all Due Obedience to you the said Leftenant Coll: Peter Carteret In all thinges appertaineing to the Ofice and coumand counfered upon you as they will answer the contrarie att their utmost perill Given under my hand And the Seale of the Collony the Twenty Eight Day of October Ano; Domo 1668
[January, 1670.] LORDS PROPRIETORS TO GOVERNOR SAMUEL STEPHENS AND COUNCIL SENDING A COPY OF THE FUNDAMENTAL CONSTITUTIONS.
Original document on one large sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages 7½ x 12 inches. Signed by five of the Pro  prietors. George Monck, Duke of Albemarle, died on January 3, 1670.
Since or last to you haveing upon mature deliberation fixed upon a forme of Goverment for or Province of Carolina wch Shall be unalterable & Wherein as we have invested the people wth a Greater Share in the Goverment then they had in or fformer way soe have we also made such provision for an equall distribution of power and Interest to ye Pespective Proprietors: that we doubt not but hereby every man will be kept inviolated in his property & liberty and ye whole Country be kept in a lasting quiet Condition wch in themselves And though this Goverment was principally intended for Port Royall wch we have sent to plant this yeare,1 & is designed ye Cheife seat of or Province yet we intend as much as we cann to put it in practice in all ye rest of or Collonys, & by this Conveyance have sent you Comissions & Instructions wth a Coppy of or fundamentall Constitucoñs & forme of Goverment wth we designed to send in Parchmt: to have remained as a Charter amongst you but being scanted in time we must doe it by ye next,2 & desire you for ye present to use this Coppy for yor direction The Duke of Albemarle who was or first Palatine of Carolina being departed this life & the Lord Berkeley being ye Eldest in yeares of ye surviveing Proprietors sucseeded to that dignity he hath appointed you mr Stephens to be his Deputy & Governor of ye County of Albemarle in wch Imploymt: we hope you will Continue yor wonted care & dilligence wch: we shall not faile in due time to Requite. We have here wth sent you back severall of yor acts3 past drawne up in another forme but agreeing in substance And when you: send us ye rest drawne in this forme we shall passe them alsoe for we desire  that all yor acts may be past in this forme for the future And whereas we are of opinion that you will never be in a happy & safe posture till you have some Townes amongst you Wee desire you in or names to propose to ye Assembly to Choose some fitt place in every Precinct whereon to Erect a publick storehouse from whence all ye Growths of that precinct that is transported may be shipped And that every mans reasons for ye place & against it may be transmitted us in Wrighting that we may be able to Judge wch place is fittest to Erect theise storehouses on And for as much as we out of or abundant desire to have ye County of Albemarle in a safe & flowrishing Condition are Resolved wth ye first money that we shall receive of our quitt rents fines or forfeitures to Erect a State house4 for reception of ye Govenor: Councell & assembly in their times of meeting alsoe a prison & a Church wch being placed whereone of yor publick storehouses is we Judge will conduce much to ye speedy building of a Towne; - We desire that you will alsoe as above send us the opinions of yor: selves & the Assembly in what place it is most Convenient for the Country to have theise buildings erected & that we may not be failing in ye meanes we desire that you will cause the Sherriifs of the Precincts to Collect the Quitt rents that will be come due to us the next yeare And that you will take care to have the same deposited in ye hands of some trusty pson to lye in Banke against ye time you shall receive or: Orders for ye Erection of the buildings above mentioned; By the next we shall send you: some powder we Rest
Yor loveing frends
January 17, 1670. SIR GEORGE CARTERET WARRANT TO PETER CARTERET AS HIS DEPUTY IN ALBEMARLE.
Original document signed and sealed by Sir George Carteret with a fine impression of arms in the wax seal. One large sheet of watermarked paper, 15 x 12 inches. The center portion of the page is mutilated affecting some of the text.
Sr George. Carteret Barnt: Pier Chamberlaine of his Masties:
Househould one of ye true and absolute - Lords and Proprietors: of Carolina and High Admirald of the said Province to all whom theise psents - Shall come Greeting.
Know yee that out of the Confidence I put in the wisdome [virtue] and valour of Peter Carteret Esqr I doe by theise presents [make] and Ordaine the said Peter Carteret to be my Deputy in [the County] of Albemarle to excercise such powers and Jurisdicions as [the instrucoñs] to the Pallatines Deputy and Governour of the [same?] and the Proprietors Deputys is Directed Wittness my [hand &] seale, this 17th day of January 1669.
[January 20, 1670.] AN ACT AGAINST ENGROSERS.1
Original document on one sheet of paper, 75/8 x 11¾ inches. Handsome impression in wax of the arms of each of the five men signing the document.
AN ACT AGAINST ENGROCERS.2
Whereas divers adventurers have transported Comoditys into this Country wch hath binn Engrosed by Some pticuler persons to retaile againe at unreasonable Rates to the inhabitants of this  County to prevent which inconvenience for the future. It is Enacted and be it Enacted by ye Pallatine and proprietors, by and with the advice and Consent of this present Grand Assembly and the authority thereof That any person whatsoever within this County that Shall after the publication hereof presume to Engrose any quantity of Goods from any Adventurer to sell and retaile againe at unreasonable Rates to the Inhabitants -Shall forfeit for every such offence tenn thousand pounds of Tobacco the One halfe to ye Informer the other halfe to the use of the Lords Propietors: And it is hereby further declared and Enacted by the authority aforesaid That any person or persons That Shall buy Goods of any Adventurer and Retail the same Except he cann in tenn dayes produce to the Vallew of the said Goods soe purchased of his owne proper Tobacco or Estate according to the Bargaine in kinde he Shall be deemed an Engrocer & proceed against as in this Act for that case is provided. Provided - nevertheless that this act Shall not extend to ye prohibiting any one that Shall keep Shopp or Retaile any Sort of Comoditys in any Towne that is or Shall be [erec]ted by the Lords Proprietors or /by their Order
this enacted witnessed hands & seals
MARCH 7, 1670. SIR WILLIAM BERKELEY TO [THE ASSEMBLY OR COUNCIL IN ALBEMARLE] ON THE DEATH OF GOVERNOR SAMUEL STEPHENS.
Document in a contemporary hand, perhaps that of a secretary, signed by Berkeley. One sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 7¾ x 11¼ inches. In this letter Berkeley in effect authorized the officials in Albemarle to elect their own governor. This is what they did as shown by document no. 16.
My Honored friends
I have lately heard the sad news of the death of yor Govern [or] Mr Sam1 Stevens wch as for other pticular respects Soe cheifely  for this that this unexpected Losse of this worthy person will be a great Stopp to the grouth and prosperity of yor New Colony is an /inexpressible griefe to me
ffor though he had not that fullness of understanding wch men bred in Europe and early accustomed to manage affaires of great Importance usually have yett to supply this he was a man of approved Courage great Integrity and a lover of the Collony & had many other psonall vertues wch usually make men lov’d and desired by those that know them
Yet though he had all these vertues yet to my great griefe I often heard that there were great factions fomented against him (and by such alsoe as should have rather studied the peace of the Collony and the upholding the authority of the Governor without wch noe Collony can long subsist) But soe contrary to this were some of their actings that I have heard that some were soe Insolent as to draw their Swords against him a crime wch deserved Capitall punishment wch certainely they had mett with that were soe presumptuous as to attempt it if it had been done in any Collony of America but that, where this mild gent presided
This gent I have hinted to you because in your new Election (if you proceed to choose any before you heard from the Lords proprietors) I would not have you choose him who gave soe ill an example of offering violence and indignityes to the late worthy Governor: this I say is my advice and onely my advise soe I will doe nothing peremtorily without first haveing this leave of the most Honble: Lords Proprietors and soe I bid you heartily farewell praying & hoping that you will doe nothing but what may lend to the advancement of the Collony
March 7th 1669 Yor friend and Servant
MARCH 10, 1670. APPOINTMENT BY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL OF PETER CARTERET TO BE GOVERNOR OF CAROLINA.
Original document on vellum with a portion of the large wax seal of the colony. One page, 13¾ x 11 inches, plus a margin of 1¾ inches turned up at the bottom.
This document not only establishes the date of Carteret’s appointment in March (instead of October as previously thought), but it also gives us a list of members of the council at that time. Together with no. 15 it also helps establish the death of Stephens as having occurred in 1670.
WHEREAS it hath pleased God by Death to take away our Governor Samuell Stevens Esqr: and Comander in Cheife; Wee therefore: John Jenkins.1 John Harvey;2 [blank] Richard ffos  ter;3 ffrancis Godfrey;4 and John Willoughby5 Councellr: to walke Regulerly by our Authority accordinge to the Instructions of our Right Honorable the true and Absoelute Lords Proprietors: of all the Province of Carolina; have made Choyce of Peter Carteret Esqr: Our Sole Governor; and Comander in Cheife him Impoweringe by Commission under written;
WEE In the name of the Right Honoble: the Lords Proprietors: Doe hereby constitue: and appoint you Peter Carteret Esqr: Governor and Comander in Cheife; Dureing the pleasure of the said power to whome wee are subordinate Governor of the county of Albemarle; as alsoe of all Iles; Islets; Rivers; and Seas wthin the Bounds of the said County; togeather wth: the Iles; and Islets wth :in tenn Leagues thereof wth: power to nominate appointe; & take to you Twelfe able men at most six att least to be your council: or Asistance; or any even number betweene six Twelfe; untill the Right Honoble: Lords Proprietors: make choyce of all or any of them And wee doe; further constitute; and appoint you to be commander in cheife Dureing the Lords pleasure of all  the forces raised: and to be raised wth: in the said county Iles; and Islets aforesaid: for the securitye of the same; & the parts adjacent within the said Province; over which fforces you are to place officers; & to cause them to be Duely exercised in Armes; & doe all; and every other thing: and things wch unto the charge of a commander in cheife of any Army belongeth or hath accustomed to belong COMMANDING: all Inferior officers: and Souldiers of the said fforces you to obey as there commander in Cheife acording to this commission; and the powers herein given unto you; and according to the Lawes; and Discipline of warr; and you your self alsoe are to observe; and follow such orders; and directions as from tyme to tyme you shall receive from the Right Honoble Lords Proprietors: And in all things to Governe your selfe as unto your duty and place of Governor: of the said county; and Commander in cheife of all the fforces there, doth belonth; Given under our hands and the Seale of the county the Tenth Day of March Anno: Domo: 1669/70:6
John Jenkins John Harvey Richard ffoster Francis Godfrey John Willoughby
SEPTEMBER 5, 1671. LORDS PROPRIETORS’ LETTER TO PETER CARTERET.
An official contemporary copy on one page of paper, 7 7/8 x 12 5/8 inches. This is the first appearance of the signature in these documents of Christopher Monck, second Duke of Albemarle, who succeeded to his father’s place as a Proprietor at the latter’s death on January 3, 1670. Sir John Berkeley was lord lieutenant of Ireland and undoubtedly away from London when this document was signed.
By Mr Nixon we sent you severall Comissions & Instructions wch we hope came safe to yor hands,1 and yt you have also received  those papers yt were sent the Lady Berkeley2 ye late wife of yor Govr Stephens of wch pray informe u[s]
Request haveing been unto us made by Mr. Robart Holden3 that he may ha[ve] Confirmed unto him Six Hundred and Sixty acres of Land bounding on the Land of the late Governor Stephens & Surveyed by Benjamin Swerin4 wth: Convenient time to Plant ye Same & also yt he may have libertye wth: goods to enter into the Indians Territory in Order to ye discovery of a Passage to our late begun setlemt at Ashley River5 wth requests we being willing to grant doe require you (if shall find yt no other pson hath a precedent claime unto ye said land, & that it be not a publick damage unto our Collony; that you according to ye fomme by us prscribe passe a grant of ye said Land unto ye said Holden & his Heyres for ever; and that you doe as much as in you lyes encourage this discovery of a passage by Land to our other Setlemt by granting leave to him & those yt shall accompany him to enter into those parts not yett discovered wth trade suf  fitient to prsent the indians & bear ye Charges of him the said Holden & his Company; & wch: we ye. more recomend unto you in regard we judge it will be of great Convenience unto yor selves; as well as those of River Ashley, who wanting stocks of Cattle will be enabled to come & buy of you: & we had much rather you should be inriched. by furnishing them; than [New] Yorke or Virginia; we desire you by all Conveneyances to give us accompt what progresse is made herein and also of all other affaires of our County wee rest
White Hall this 5th: of Sept 167
Yor loveing ffreinds
Thomas Harris6 Cl Con
DECEMBER 11, 1671. THOMAS EASTCHURCH TO GOVERNOR PETER CARTERET.
Original document on one sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 6 7/8 x 9¼ inches. A wax seal with arms remains.
I did understand lately that severall person at Albemarle pr:tending that I am indebted to them have Atacked and otherwise made spoyle of my estate I should erre this have been att ye south to answere to all there pleas but my urgent occasions here in virginia have hindered mee, I propose god pmitting shortly to wayte upon you. and for the prsent shall heartily intreate you. not to suffer some mens madnesse to have prvayle Sr- Mr: Holden is Arived in virginia about 10 or 11 days since hee hath  brought Letters for you. from ye properetors and doth informe mee that there Lords have confirmed me in ye surveyor Generalls place, hee with my selfe doe intend erre long to go wayte on you. I shall not trouble you, any farther att prsent my most humble srvice prsented I only crave leave to subscribe my selfe as ever
Sr- Yor: most Loyall & most
Nansamum1 11th dec: 1671
for ye Honble Peter
APRIL 27, 1672. GRAND COUNCIL'S INSTRUCTIONS TO GOVERNOR PETER CARTERET.
Original document on a single sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 7 5/8 x 11 7/8 inches. Apparently in the hand of Speaker Bird and signed by each man with the exceptions noted below.
 A part of the value of this document lies in the fact that it gives us the names of the members of the governor’s council at this time. Jennings and Pearce appear to have been unable to write as their marks occur with their names. For further details concerning this document see no. 20.
Instructions for the Honoble Peter Carteret Esqr Govenor and Comander in Cheife of the County of Albemarle and Mr John Harvey his assistant:
That in most Humble: manner you prsent ye tender of our Duty and ffidellity to our most Honoble: Lords;
2 To treate wth: ye Lords that the Quitt rents bee as are in Virginia
3 About a Towne and that the assestance of the Lords bee desired for armes & ammunittion;
4 That Children Transported into this Country may have right to Land when att age as well as other Servants;
5 Alteration of the Act for 660 Acres of Land in one Devidend
6 Alteration of the Act for not Sueinge in five yeares
7 Alteration of the Act Concerning Ingrossers
8 The Injury Sustained by us by Constraint of entrey & Clearinge in Virginia & paying 2s P Hogshead though & Shippt for England by us beinge Owners;
Albemarle the 27th: of April 1672
Instructions from the
APRIL 27, 1672. GRAND COUNCIL'S INSTRUCTIONS TO GOVERNOR PETER CARTERET AND JOHN HARVEY; JOHN HARVEY TO THE PROPRIETORS, JULY 11, 1672.
Contemporary copy of the Instructions with an autograph note by Harvey appended. One page of watermarked paper, 12 x 7¾ inches.
This apparently is the copy Harvey had in his possession to establish his identity and purpose. When he found it necessary  to return home, however, he added a note transferring whatever authority he might have had in the matter to Carteret.
The Fundamental Constitutions provided for a Grand Council in the colony to be composed of fifty members, whose function it was to propose laws to the assembly for their acceptance, on the theory that laws should be initiated by the best and resolved by the most. In practice, however, the governor’s council in the colony was sometimes called the Grand Council, but it was quite a different group from that provided for in the Constitutions. These same nine members listed here also signed documents no. 19 and 21.
Whereas the Nessisity of this Contrey in regard of the Great distance wee are att from or most Honorable Lords- requireth an Agent to Demonstrate the Condition of the same & Implore their Lordshipps Goodness the Honorable Peter Carteret Esqr Governor: & Comander in Chiefe of this County upon the Humble <Copia> request of us the Inhabitants being their unto by this prsent moved wee theirfore Subscribed doe hearby Intrust the said Peter Carteret Esqr: & mr John Harvey for us & in or Names & the Name of the whole Contrey to move the Lords with all those things mentioned in their Instructions for that purpose and any thing else that they shall see Convenient in pursuance of them or otherwise that to them or either of them may seeme Needfull in the Determination whereof wee shall acquisee & rest fully Satisfied -
Given under or hand & the Seal of the Collony the 27th of Appr: 1672 -
Instructions for the Honorable Peter Carteret Esqr: Governor: & Comander in Chiefe of the Conty of Albemarle & Mr John Harvey his Assistant -
That in most humble maner you prsent the tender of or Duty & fidelity to or most Honorable Lords -
2 To treat with the Lords that the Quit rents bee as are in Virginia - 
3 Aboutt a towne & that the Asistance of the Lords bee desired for Armes & amunitions -
4 That Children transported into this Contrey may have right to Land when at age as well as other
5 Alteration of the Act for 660 Acres of Land in One devidend -
6 Alteration of the Act for Nott Sueing in five years -
7 Alteration of the Act Concerning Ingrosers -
8 The Injury Sustained by us by Constraint of Entreys & Clearing in Virginia & paying 2/s P hogshed though shippt for England by us being Owners -/-/
Valentin Bird Speaker Grand Coun
Whereas by the Generall assembly at Albemarle It was concluded ye honorble: peter Carteret Esqr Governor should treat with yor Lordshipps as by his Instructions & yt I John Harvey should bee with ye said Governor his assistant in those maters wherin I have in some measure proceeded I being by more then Ordinairie accident & Ocassion of busisynes necesistated to returne whome againe forthwith - doe theirfore leave the psecution of those Instructions to ye care of or said Governor Wittness my hand this 11th of July 1672 at New Yorke
APRIL 27, 1672. GRAND COUNCIL'S LETTER TO THE LORDS PROPRIETORS.
Copy in a contemporary hand with autograph signatures, on a single sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 7 9/16 x 11¾ inches.
Yor Lordshipps from White hall of the 18th Octobr: in the yeare 1670, haveing received Imediatly to yt end being Summoned & Serious wayinge ye Charge & momentt thereof did address our selves by letters to yor Lordshippe ye Coppy of the same beinge hereinclosed,1 in order to ye Psecution of what we therein express wee by writt beinge thereunto Summoned and Convened in forme accordinge to yor Lordshipps instructions in ye fundamentall Constitutiones Informe yor Lordshipps yt accordinge to ye best of our understandings in ye view & review of all the Laws & bindinge observations yt have passed since ye first Seatinge this Countrey by yor Lordshipps Instructions we have extracted the best and as wee Conceive ye most usefull of wch as our prsent rule till better knowledge of yor Honobl: aprobation wee need not Informe yor Lordshipps how week & uncapable wee are of managinge things of so high Concerne as ye well layinge a foundation of a Country by wholesom Law wthout advertisement; & Direction from yor Lordshipp and the distance of us from yor Lordshipps being such as by many Casualltyes  may prventt us of receiveing light & Instrucoñs from yor Lordshipps hath Caused us by ye goodness of our Governor by whose prudence and Integrity God hath blessed us since his receiveing yt charge wth. more unity & tranquility than ever before to make further use of him to prsent our Letter to yor Lordshipps by whose desire and aprobation wee have likewise joyned Mr John Harvey in our steed wth him to represent to yor Lordshipps ye true sence & humble: desires of us the whole people a thing Impossible to bee done by a Thousand epestles; & in whome wee have freely Imposed our trust and shall rest content as Sattisfyed in their Declarations to yr Lordshipps as if wee had had ye Conveneince & happines to have Spoken Man by Man to yr Lordshipps; and soe much ye rather beecause that expereince wee have had of them both in their severall capasities hath been such as hath demonstrated their asertion to ye well being of this Countrey as there Integrity to yor Lordshipps & by whose meanes wee doubt not to receive ye returnes of yor Lordshipps favour in yor Honors aprhentions of our faithfulnes & Stabillity ye knowlidge of wch to us will ever engadge to remaine in the pseverance of all faithfullnes & obedience;
Yor Lordshipps Most Humble: & ffaithfull Servts
Albemarle the 27th: of Aprill 1672.
William WI jenings
Thomas O Pearce
Valentine Bird Speakor
From ye Inhabitants
MAY 16, 1671. GOVERNOR AND COUNCIL LETTER TO THE LORDS PRPRIETORS.
Copy made in April, 1672, to accompany the letter of April 27, that year, addressed to the Lords Proprietors by the Grand Council. (See document no. 21.) One sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 7 11/16 x 12 inches.
Yor Honors letter of the 18th of Octobr: 16701 ffrom Whitehall with Instructions & fundementall Constitutions for the perpetuall Governemt. of the people of this province under charge & protection of yr Lordshipps wee have received & (beinge to that End Convened) to havinge seriously wayed the method & Concernes theirof must need with all humility acknowledge (as yor <Copia> Lordshipps wisdome & moral prudence) yor care of and Goodness toward us, the whole Intent & ground wherof wee beinge Confident in effect is to make us a free happy & florishinge people butt in as much Right Honorable as things of Soe high Concernes exposed & Exhibited in Such unacustomed termes cañott on a Sudein make a Cleare Impression, on Such meane Capacityes as wee are Endowed with yeet that wee may Nott bee backward, to demonstrate or Integrity & fidelity wee Shall Only flye to yor Lordshipps to be Inluminated in what at prsent to us may Seemes Obscure, in Order wherunto wee most humbly Informe yor Lordshipps that wee conceive that the layinge Outt of the Land in Squares of tenne thousand acres accordinge to yor Lordshipps Instructions Contained in the Sixth paragraph (to answer the Intent & meaninge wee aprehend in the fundementall Constitutions to bee withoutt prejudce to persones alredy seated—wee Conceive Impossible & further whereas yor Lordshipps pleasur is to require of us On halfe peny p acre for or Lands under favor: wee humbly conceive is to take from us that freedome yor Lordshipps formerly gave us by yor former Instructions, manifested that wee should hold or Land as they did in  Virginia, especially wee beinge Nott capable to understand how any man may bee deemed an Ingrosser of Land whoe posseseth Noe more than hee hath right unto by Seatinge persons upon it, or that the possesour Should bee weakned butt undeniably Stronger, for his people beinge Contracted, and ffurther that clause in the fundamentall Constitutions restraininge persons chosen by the people from a freedom of ppossall will bee deemed in the people a Compelled unnessarie Charge, by these Expressions Right Honorable wee would Nott bee thought Seditious or unreasonable persones butt that yor Lordshipps might throughly & truly understand the true state of thinges wherin wee Judge wee doe more Christianlicke than by fawninge & disemblinge prtences informe yor Lordshipps of what will never bee found truth Such & Soe many are the Juglinge devices & Stratagemes of Some enemies to the Seatings of this Contrey withoutt us, Such the weakness of Some & wickednesse of Other within us, that will bee apt to conceive & make mole hills mountaines of Discouradgmts: to Say of or Selves that Nottwithstandinge the many & various Comotions disorders & irregularities wee have Only beene Instrumts of appealinge & Compossinge, was butt in efect <Copia> to Declare what was or Dutie to performe & might Seems boastinge, butt reather that the effects of or future Indevors: may pduce Such thinges may Confirme to yor Lordshipps or ffidelity by the Hono yt will acrue to to yor Lordshipps, & fflourishinge & happie Estate & Increase of people in this place the meane thinge to further which wee humbly conceive will be yor Lordshipps answer to this letter the Only Stop of many persones Intendinge for this place (being Now fully Sattisfied with the Teñour of or Lands) beinge the Rent nott to Exceed that of Virginia and untill the returne therof wee have Restrained the Callinge of an assemblie which when called wee hope to Send yor Lordshipps Such ample accot: of all things with the whole State of thinges Lawes & rulles by which wee walke as will both Satisfie yor Lordshipps of or care & rendre us to yor honors aceptable persones, & wherin wee shall Debate of the most Convenient place for the Erectinge of a towne a thinge which we conceive absolutly nessesarie to the well beinge of this place, To Exprse or whole hartes in few lines (which wee desire yor Lordshipps Should See & Know to the botome) is beyond or Skill & ability, & large Espistles to persones of honor & much busignes may seeme Irksome & tedious, wee shall theirfore till then leave or  Selves and these or lines to the favourable Constructions of yor Lordshipps & ever remaine in all putuall Observation -
Albemarle the 16th May 1671
and Obedient Servants-
Peter Carteret Richard Foster
John Jenkins John Willoughby
John Harvey John Nixon
[APRIL-JULY?] 1672. GOVERNOR PETER CARTERET WARRANT TO JOHN JENKINS TO BE DEPUTY GOVERNOR.
An official contemporary copy on a single sheet of watermarked paper, 12¾ x 8 inches.
Carteret and Harvey were authorized by the Grand Council in April, 1672, to go to England as agents of the colony. Harvey was in New York by July, and Carteret went on alone. This appointment, therefore, must have been made before they left the colony. Here we have evidence of Jenkins’ appointment fairly early in 1672, and not in May, 1673, as previously thought.
 Wheras his Excellencie John Lord Berkley of Stratton Lord Leftenant of the Kingdome of Irland and Pallatin of Carolina hath beene Gratiously pleased to Constitute Ordaine and by Comission Inpower mee Peter Carteret Deputie Pallatin Governor and Comander in Chiefe of the County of Albemarle with full power and Authoritie to Excercise Such Powers and Jurisdictions as by the fundementall Constitutions and fforme of Governement of the Province of Carolina is allowed to the Pallatine Deputy, And for as much as the Nessesitie of affaires hath constrained mee for Some time to absente my selfe from the Said Charge
Know yee theirfore that I the said Peter Carteret by virtue of the Power aforesaid Outt of the trust and Confidence that I have in the Wisdome and Vallour of Leftenant Collonell John Jenkins I doe hereby Constitute and Ordaine the Said Leftenant Coll John Jenkins my Deputie with full power and Authoritie to act and doe as farr forth as I my Selfe might or Ought to doe by Virtue of the Said Comission and Instructions theire unto Anexed remaining upon recorde in the Secretairies Office, and this Comission to Continue in full force untill my Returne or that in the mean time his Excellencie the Pallatin & the rest of the right Honorable the Lords Proprietor Signifie their Pleasur to the Contrarie Wittness my hand and the Seale of the Collonye this [blank] 1672
Test Thomas Harris Cle Con
A Copy of a Commiso. to John Jenkins, from Peter Carteret Esqr. Governour of Albemarle to be his Deputy
1673. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS OF PETER CARTERET, 1666-1673, IN CAROLINA.
Original document on one large sheet of watermarked paper, 15½ x 11¾ inches, folded to make four pages; the accounts are on the two inside pages.
It bears an outside endorsement:
when he was at Carolina
Albmarle. Anno. 1666:-
: : accott foll (6th) tobo. att 6 s P Cent................: 145 19 08 :
: :accompt foll (7) tob. at 16 s. P Cent................: 084 17 11 :
: :accompt foll (8) tob. at 16s. P Cent..................: 005 14 10 :
:-: To Eight years Service at 20£ P yeare is.......: 160 00 00 :
: 548 13 11
: £ /s d :
:-: Due to meet as P the above accompt...........: 330 04 02 :
:-: Due to three Servants for their Salleries : :
: : & freedom Clothes for this : :
: : yeare wch. will bee Expired the 25th : :
: : Feb. next, as P the Generall accott- ...............: 018 04 00 :
: : Due to Ditto. Servants being (3) for ) : :
: : their next years Sallery wch. will bee ) : :
: : Exprired the 25th. Feb: 1673/4: ) : :
: : 3000 lb. tob. att 16s: P Cent. . . . . ) : 024 00 00:
: £: 372 08 02 :
:-: Due to ye Said Servants being (3) ) : :
: : for this yeare Service Expired ye ) : :
: : 25th of febr 1674/5 3000£ tob at 1/s ) : :
: : P Cent is 2...........................................................: 24 00 00 :
: £: 396 08 02 :
London Anno-1664- : :
Contra is Creditor. : £ /s d :
:-: By Sir George Carteret for monney :
: : received of him............................................... : 020 00 00 :
: : & Comp.e : 096 06 00 :
: : Colliton & Compe............................................ : 083 15 00 :
:-: By Mr Harbin3 for Monney received............: 007 08 06 :
:-: By Mr Harbin for Monney received..............: 011 00 03 :
: 218 09 09 :
:-: By Ballance Due on this Accompt................ : 330 04 02
: 548 13 11 :
London 1672/3 : : Abstract of Severall goods houseings : :
: : Cattell as P the Generall Accompt that : :
: : are on the Plantations of Colliton Iland : :
: : Powells point, for accompt of my : :
: : Lord the Earle of Craven & Company- : :
:1: Impr. On Powells Point; A Dwelling) : £ /s d :
[1673.] JOHN BUCKWORTH STATEMENT TO THE LORDS PROPRIETORS CONCERNING PETER CARTERET'S ACCOUNTS. POSTSCRIPT BY CARTERET.
Contemporary copy apparently made by Carteret, on one sheet of watermarked paper, folded to four pages, 7½ x 11¾ inches.
May it please yor Lordshipps -
According to yor Lordshipps desire I have considered & Examined the severall perticulars in certaine acompts produced to mee by mr peter Carteret relating to yor Lordshipps & Compa: conserne in yor plantations in yor province of Carolina in America & theirby find yt yor Expences in yor said plantations & profitts arissing theirby to be as Followeth:
£ /s d
Lordshipps disbursed for severall)
necessaries as p his acompt: appeare ) 218 00 08
passages of Servants & other charges )
Out of ffrance & England at the )
time you send mr Carteret Over.... ) 176 14 11
essaries for yor plantations sent with )
mr Carteret as p Invoice p whereof )
the said mr Carteret affiermed to bee )
Willin being upon the Said planta- )
tions as p his accompt: . . . . . . . . . .) 162 04 04
bills of Exchange at Severall times )
with twenty pounds hee received as )
p Acompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ) 218 09 09
have disbursed for yor Lordshipps for )
Several Necessaries for the plantation )
maineth their as p his accompt . . . . .) 170 04 02
his Order since his coming Over for )
hyring Servants to Look after yor )
Lordshipps plantations P acot: . . . .) 066 04 00
Eight years Salary for himselfe at)
20£ P annum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) 160 00 00
Carterets accompts that in the time of )
his being yor Agent their that he re- )
mited in whale Oyle to Sr Peter Colle- )
ton for yor Lordshipps accompt to )
the value of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 05 00
his accompt that their remaines in be- )
ing on the Said plantations in houses )
utensells & living Stock to the value )
of as p perticulars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) 324 16 00
ducted outt of the Total 566 01 00
above mentioned Sums of 1171£ :17/sl0d:
the Said plantation wilbe debitor to
yor Lordshipps the Sume of 605£: 16/s: 10d: and towards Satisfaction whereof the Said mr Carteret afiermeth yt yor Lordshipps have about 70: or 80 Acres of Cleared ground: upon the whole matter and considering that plantations are nott usually beneficiall to the first undertakers & the great losses the plantation sufered in the time of mr Carterets being their as he aleageth by haericanns & great Stormes and Seing yor Lordshipp Intrusted the Said mr Carteret to manadge yor Interest theire I doe conceive with Submision to yor Lordshipp that his acompts being reasonable are to be allowed unlesse yor Lordshipps can make  them appeare other waise all which neverthelesse I submitt to yor Lordshipps Grave Consideration and remayne
This is as neere as I could gather it a Copy
[DECEMBER, 1674.] PETER CARTERET LETTER TO [SIR GEORGE CARTERET].
Original document on a single sheet of paper 7 3/8 x 11½ inches.
May it please Yor Honor -
The Only reason that I have adresed this my most humble request in writting is because yor honor may more Pticularly take it in yor most serious consideration the urgent necessity of puten an end to the busisgnes that concernes the plantations Setled by mee in Albemarle for yor honor & Compa accompt as ffoloweth -Soe may it please yor honor I have been from thence aboutt two yeares and yor honor & Compa: have Nott appointed any men as yett there to manidg the plantations or Look after the Stocke Only those that my Attorney by my order there hired the Last yeare whose time will Sudenly bee Expired
I Undoubtedly if the plantation & Stock bee neglected the catle will groe wild the houses & fences probably burnt for the Railes it beinge usuall with the Indgians & others Soe to doe Soe that  Consequently in leass then three month time all will be ruined for having these two yeares paid those mens wages upon my Owne accompt, And nott having as yett received any thing from yor hono. & Compa. it is imposible for mee any Longer to Subsist to pay them Soe that an unavoidable ruine wilbe the Imediat Isue, & myselfe Left unpaid for all my Services & disboursements --
May it please yor honor that you & the Lord theirein concernd to whome Shall after yor honors approbation mak the Like request seinge the appearant Necessity of maken an end of that busisgnes to avoid that which undoubtedly will folow if nott theirby prevented I their fore humbly begg that yor honor will be Graciously pleased that I may have yor favor: & assistance in the getting of my just due from the Lords with yor Honor Concerned Soe that their may bee a finall end as Soone as possible (for I am heere at great Expensive charge) And if their Lordshipps bee Nott please to disbourse any money that then they bee please to leave mee their pticular pts of the plantations & what Stock belongs to them although it will be to my Lost) as my Lord Berkley did often propose to mee for his Pticular Pt I am redy to acquise to yor honor pleasure (Concerning yor Pticular) with a most humble Submission cravinge yor honor pardon for my proxility praying to God for yor honor health & happinesse which Shall alwaies bee the dayly prayers of
DECEMBER 3, 1674. PETER CARTERET'S ACCOUNT OF THE YEARS 1666-1673 IN ALBEMARLE.
Original document on a single sheet of paper, 7 11/16 x 11¾ inches, written on both sides.
An acompt how I have Imployed my Selfe & Servants in the Setlinge of a plantation for the Right honorble My Lord the Earle  of Craven my Lord Berkeley Sr George Carteret Sr Peter Colleton in Albemarle in the province of Carolina, with what Stormes or haricanes hath happened Since my being their as Followeth./ Wee arived in Albemarle the 23d of ffebr 1664/5 & went to Colleton Island acording to Instructions where I found a 20 foot dwelling howse a 10 foot hogg howse & apsell of wild hoggs butt Nothing towards a plantation soe that I was to make a plantation out of the wilderness wee cleered what ground we could on powells pointe & plant it with corne which produced litle by reason that wee were all Sick all the Sumer that wee could nott tend it & the Servants Soe weake the fall & Spring that they could doe little worke
Wee cleered fenced & planted what ground we could wee built a hogg howse of 80 foot Long & 20 broad with nessesarie partitions on powells pointe & gott the hoggs theire which I received that trived very well at first butt by the Last of October I had los neere a third pt of them Nottwithstanding I Kept a man to look after them & corne to give them this yeare wee have made aboute 150 bars1 of Corne-.
Wee planted what corne & tob: wee could & made what preparations was nessesarie for to make Oile August ye 27th heere happened a great storme or reather haricane that destroyed both corne & tob: blew downe the roof of the great hogg howse that I had built the yeare before caried away the frame & boards of two howses soe that I was forced to bee at the charges of getting of other timber this yeare wee have made about 30 bar of Oile butt could nott gett fright for it that yeare soe yt their was great Lakages -
Wee cleered more grownd and repaired or fences planted both corne & tobacoe butt Such a great Drough happened for about 3 month yt burnt up all the tob. & stented the corne that it produced litle ye 30th: July the raignes begone & continued untill the Later End of August soe yt the great abundance of raignes  did as much hurt as the drough had before we made 5 hods of tob & about 80 bars of of Oile -
Wee repaired or fences planted both corne & tob: which was very hopfull the 2d of August wee howsed a bout a hod of tob ye 18 ditto a violent haricane as bad as the former Only did nott last soe Long destroyed what tob was out broke & spoiled most of the corne this yeare wee have made 1 hode of tobackoe and aboutt 52 barrels of Oile/.
Wee planted both Corne & tob: proportionable to the Number of Servants that I had left the 6th of August wee had a violent haricane that Lasted 24 howers broke downe timber trees blew downe howses destroyed both corne & tob: soe that it was Lick to bee a famine amongst us corne was sold in virginia for 3£ sterling a barell & with us at 250£ of tob: it blew downe to the ground the hogg howse & a howse on the South side of the Inlette wher was aboutt 30 barells broke & spoiled & caried away a small howse On the North Pt of the Inlette where was 4 tunes of corke redy trimed for to putt in On aboutt ye begininge of Septembr we had an other storme but nott altogether soe violent as the former this yeare Very few whales came On Shoare wee made aboutt 38 bar’s of Oile -
Wee planted corne & Looked after the Stock of Catle -
When I came away my Order to them was to look after the Stock, corn beinge then planted two of the three Servants being hyred by mee -
turn Over -
I have Send Order to my Attorney their to hyre the Same Servants or three Others & to plant corne & Look after the Stock their time wilbe Expired the 25th of Febr: 1674/5./.
 May it please Yor Lordshipps -
I have given you a true & perfect acompt by which I doe plainly demonstrate to yor Lordshipps the reasons wherfore I could nott make those returnes & profitts yt yor Lordshipps did Expect which proably in time if suplyed & well manidged may answer yor Lordshipps Expectations butt if Neglected Soone ruined yor Lordshipps may plainly apperceive yt my Industrie Labour & paines have Nott in the Least beene wanting And that it hath pleased God of his providence to Inflict Such a Generall calamitie upon the inhabitans of these countreys that for Severall yeares they have Nott Injoyed the fruitts of their Labouns which causes them Generally to growne under the burtyn of poverty & many times famine thus my Lords I have given yor Lordshipps as plaine a demonstration as my weak capacity hath Enable mee humbly humbly creaving pardon for my proxility & to Subscribe my Selfe
Decembr ye 3d 1674
[JANUARY, 1675.] PETER CARTERET LETTER TO [SIR GEORGE CARTERET]. NOTE ADDED IN FRENCH BY GEORGE CARTERET TO HIS AUNT, JANUARY 25, 1675.
Original document on a single sheet of paper, 7½ x 11¾ inches. On the back are a few figures, some small squares, and various bits of scratching together with a few words including A copy of a Letter and accompt Saile.
Right Honorable -
I need noe stronger motives to Induce mee to writte but the remembrance of yor honors many fold favors: and Kindnesses manifested to me while I was in Albemarle hath made soe deep an Impression in me that I cannot Omitt, butt to present my most humble service to yor honor and am very Joyfull to understand  that the rest of the Lords proprietors have quited to yor honor their respectives Interest of the province of Albemarle which undoubtedly will much Incoridge those alredy Seated and others to come I hope by the Grace of god to be their next yeare I had beene their this yeare butt busisgnes happening that hath prevented me &c when I comes their if yor [Excellency] Judges mee capable and soe worthy to be honored with yor honor comand the true Observation wherof shall be the highes of my ambition desiring yor honor to continue me in the Secretairies place as before Sr as to Inland newes wee are at prsent barren of them the Earle of Clarendene died aboutt 3 weeks Since at roan1 & was brought over and buried in Westminister Abey Left: Admirall Vantromp2 is come over heere and hath beene feasted by the King and Duke very magnificiently, yet it is thought that he is come heere reather as a privat persone then a publicq minister aboutt tenn dayes Since was putt in the tower Coll Lovelace3 the form’er Governor of New Yorke for New Yorke busisgness as for Out Landish Newes yor honor wilbe please to peruse the within Inclose gazett having noe more at prsent I creave Leave to Subscribe myselfe
Ce 25eme Jan. 1674 de Londres Ma Tante Il vous
 Por Famille Rachel Madlle laCloche
1 In these dimensions the first one given indicates the width of the page.
2 Peter Carteret was related to Sir George Carteret, the Proprietor, whose deputy he was at a meeting of the Lords Proprietors on January 20, 1670. In 1664, as indicated by these documents, he was appointed assistant governor and member of the council, and secretary of the County of Albemarle. On February 23, 1665, (see document no. 27) he reached Albemarle. Governor Stephens, on October 28, 1668, appointed Carteret to be lieutenant colonel of all the forces of the County of Albemarle. After Stephens’ death he was appointed governor and served from March 10, 1670, the date of his appointment, until the spring of 1672, when he returned to England. A contemporary noted that he left yé Governmt there [Albemarle] in ill order & worse hands. For other references to Carteret see documents no. 2, 3, 4, 11, 16, 27, and 28.
1 Exeter, September 9, 1665. For an explanation of the date see the preface to document no. 5.
2 Captain John Whitty, possibly a member of the Whitty family of Sedbury, Devonshire. On November 24, 1653, by an order of the Council of State in England, John Whitty, Master of the John and Thomas was among those receiving warrants to transport servants and passengers to Virginia, and 150 dozen of shoes in each ship. In September, 1663, he brought over to Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina, a copy of the Carolina charter of 1663. He also had informed the Proprietors about how to get from Virginia to the Chowan both by land and water, so he apparently had been in the vicinity earlier. In the winter of 1664-1665 he sailed through Roanoke Inlet to bring in commodities. He submitted a series of proposals to the Lords Proprietors in 1667 for the inhabiting of Carolina and for buildings of cities and towns. Whitty apparently was in the service of the Proprietors to transport people and stock to Albemarle, and he sometimes took back tobacco from Virginia and perhaps also from Carolina.
On April 22, 1670, the minutes of the council in Virginia record the fact that Whitty was dead and his widow already married to William Cocker. Thomas Ludwell was agent for his estate against which William Drummond and others entered claims. For other references to Whitty see documents no. 4, 5, and 25.
3 Colleton Island is now known as Collington Island, in Dare County. It was granted before September, 1663, to Sir John Colleton by Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors. Earlier the island had been known as Carelyle Island. Colleton Island is also mentioned in document no. 24.
4 Powells Point is the peninsula extending into Albemarle Sound, now a part of Currituck County. Powells Point is also mentioned in document no. 24.
5 From Albemarle in June, 1665, Thomas Woodward acknowledged his appointment as surveyor. He must have been well educated as he quoted from Bacon’s Essay on Plantations and a Spanish proverb in Spanish. On October 17, 1666, he and Governor Drummond represented Carolina at a council held at St. Mary’s, Maryland, concerning the growing of tobacco in Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina.
6 Shershaw Cary (1615-ca.1681), son of a Bristol draper, served an apprenticeship to a local merchant and became a burgess in 1641. As a sugar refiner his name occurs with regularity in the pages of the Bristol port books. He was Master of the Society of Merchant Venturers, 1671-1672. His death in Lisbon occurred about 1681. This same transaction between Colleton and Cary is mentioned in document no. 5.
7 William Drummond, first governor appointed under the Lords Proprietors, was born in Scotland and settled in Virginia before 1659 where he was an attorney. His appointment, at the recommendation of Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors, as governor of Albemarle for a term of three years seems to have been made in October, 1664. When his term expired in 1667 he returned to Jamestown and the practice of law. He took part in Bacon’s Rebellion, largely as an advisor, however, but for his part in the uprising he was hanged by Berkeley in 1677. His widow, Sarah, and five small children survived him. Drummond is also mentioned in document no. 5.
1William Crafford or Crawford, described as a New England man, became one of the leaders in Culpeper’s Rebellion. He was a member of the Assembly in 1677 and in 1680 was a member of the governor’s council under John Jenkins, acting governor. At one time he lived in Pascotank, and in 1679 sundry hogsheads of tobacco were shipped from his plantation. A record dated 1682 indicates that his wife was named Margaret. The following year he must have held some official position in Albemarle County, as the will of Thomas Keile is noted as having been proven before him in March, 1683. He may have removed to Virginia, as one Captain William Crawford represented Lower Norfolk County in the House of Burgesses in 1688.
2 I have been unable to identify Bonnefeild.
3 I have been unable to identify Mr. and Mrs. Sherminton, undoubtedly London victims of the plague.
1 The year before Colleton was addressed neere St. Jameses, London by Surveyor Thomas Woodward. It is assumed, therefore, that Colleton’s home was in the vicinity of St. James’s Palace. This occurs also in documents no. 9 and 10.
2 The point of land between North River on the east and Pasquotank River on the west is now in Camden County.
4 This may have been the name of Carteret’s home and if so, located on Colleton Island. John Colleton’s letter of September 26, 1665 (document no. 3) was addressed to him on the island. Apparently [at?] Bitt Hall was added in Colleton’s hand.
1 Stephens’ commission is printed in William L. Saunders, editor, The Colonial Records of North Carolina (Raleigh: P. M. Hale, Printer to the State, 1886), I, 162-164, from an undated copy in the Public Record Office, London, and the Instructions are on pages 165-175. This volume is cited hereafter as Colonial Records.
2 Sir Peter Colleton was the eldest son and heir of Sir John Colleton (1608-1666), one of the original eight Lords Proprietors of Carolina and the first to die. In 1669 Sir Peter was first High Steward among the Proprietors; the following year he was advanced to the post of chancellor, succeeding John Berkeley who had become Palatine on the death of the Duke of Albemarle. In 1668 he was one of the grantees of the Bahamas and adjacent islands. For other references to him see documents no. 8, 9, and 24.
3 Samuel Stephens was the son of Richard Stephens of London who settled at Jamestown in 1623. His mother was Elizabeth Peirsey, daughter of the cape-merchant Abraham Peirsey. (Her second husband was Governor Sir John Harvey.) Stephens was born about 1629 and in 1652 he married Frances Culpeper. His land in Virginia was Bolthrope plantation on the Warwick River. On October 9, 1662, the council in Virginia issued a commission to Stephens, who was called Captain, to be commander of the southern plantation [and] authorizing him to appoint a sheriff. In October, 1667, he was appointed governor of Albemarle County by the Lords Proprietors and these documents set forth his rights and duties. On January 20, 1670, Sir William Berkeley as a Proprietor, commissioned Stephens to be his deputy in Albemarle. Stephens died in office before March 7, 1670. By the end of June his widow was married to Sir Willam Berkeley. (For a note on her see document no. 17.)
The Great Deed of Grant (see Colonial Records, I, 175-176) giving the people of Albemarle the same terms and conditions for holding lands as those in force in Virginia, was issued to Stephens as governor on May 1, 1668. As late as 1754 we find evidence that colonial officials in North Carolina were citing records dating back to Stephens’ administration. For other references to him see documents no. 9, 11, 15, and 16.
1 Here Clarendon has been crossed out and followed by Albemarle.
1 A part of Whitehall Palace in London.
2 Anthony Langston, who brought over Governor Stephens’ commission in October, 1667, had formerly been an Ensign in Prince Maurice’s Regiment. Afterwards he lived in Virginia for fourteen years but returned to England in 1662. He killed a man in a brawl and was found guilty of manslaughter but pardoned. He then had an outstanding career at sea and in 1666 captured a ship which was awarded to him as a prize. In May, 1667, he captured another worth £900 (at a time when the governor of Albemarle received an annual salary of £20). His ship in December, 1667, and for the next two years was named the Princess; it probably was the one he sailed bringing over Stephens’ commission. In 1668 he is recorded as captain of one of the King’s frigates. He held over 2,000 acres of land in Virginia acquired for bringing over colonists.
3 George Catchmaid is described in land grants as a gentleman he was a member of the Catchmaid family of Trelleck, Monmouthshire, several of whom attended Oxford, and he possibly was related to the Berkeley family. In 1659 he was a clerk of the court in Virginia and in 1660 represented Upper Norfolk in the House of Burgesses. He received an early grant for 3,333 acres from the governor of Virginia, including the land on which George Durant was already settled (in what was soon to be called Carolina) under a deed from the Indians. In March, 1663, Catchmaid deeded to Durant that portion he was then occupying; this appears to be the third oldest land conveyance in the colony. Catchmaid was speaker of the assembly of 1666. He and his wife Mary returned to Virginia, and he became clerk of Nansemond County. By March 26, 1684, he was dead.
1 Whether Nixon had been in the colony before we do not know. This may have been his first trip to Carolina. By 1673 he was a magistrate in Albemarle, and in 1677 he was appointed deputy for Sir Peter Colleton in the colony. The same year he was a member of the governor’s council when Eastchurch held the appointment. Leaders of Culpeper’s Rebellion accused him of treason. He was a member of the Grand Councell for ye County of Albemarle at Durant’s house, November 6, 1679, when he was reported to be 54 years of age. His will, dated February 4, 1688, was probated August 8, 1692, in Pasquotank. He was survived by his wife, Em, and a daughter, Ann. Document no. 17 also mentions Nixon.
2 The Fundamental Constitutions, put into effect nine months after this letter was written, provided that all whale fishing should wholly belong to the Lords Proprietors. In 1681, however, for the incouragement of Carolina, the inhabitants of the province were authorized to take what whales they can and convert them to their own use for the next seven years. Document no. 24 has a reference to whale oil.
1 A colony under Sir John Yeamans sailed from England late in August, 1669, intending to settle at Port Royal (near modern Beaufort, S. C., some fifty miles down the coast from Charleston). They reached Port Royal River the last day of March, 1670, but remained in the area only a short while before removing to the south bank of the Ashley River, opposite present-day Charleston.
2 The better copy perhaps was sent on October 18, 1670. See document no. 22.
3 Perhaps one of them was the act included here as document no. 14.
4 This is one of the earliest if, indeed, it is not the first reference we have to the erection of a capitol building and perhaps the first use of the term State house. Tryon’s Palace in Newbern, completed exactly a century later, was North Carolina’s first capitol.
1 This document is printed in Colonial Records I, 185, and Walter Clark, editor, The State Records of North Carolina (Goldsboro: Nash Brothers, 1906), XXV, 120.
2 Those who purchase the whole or large quantities of goods or land to control the market, enhance the price, or make a monopoly; a criminal offense at common law. The term occurs again in document no. 19.
1 One John Jenkins was graduated from Clare College, Cambridge, in 1642. Eleven years later John Jenkins patented land in Northumberland County, Virginia, but did not settle it. In September of the same year, 1653, he was licensed by the Council of State in England as master of a ship to carry 23 men and 100 dozen pairs of shoes to the Bermudas. About 1658 we find John Jenkins settled in the Albemarle, and in 1663 he witnessed a deed from George Catchmaid to George Durant. On September 5, 1663, Jenkins received a grant from Sir William Berkeley of 700 acres with the Perquimans River as a northern boundary. He became deputy in Albemarle for the Earl of Craven in January, 1670, and served as a member of the governor’s council. Two years later he is listed as a member of the assembly and, as a lieutenant colonel, appointed acting governor during the absence of Governor Peter Carteret. Jenkins was a member of the council in 1670 under Governor Stephens, in 1677 under Governor Eastchurch, and in 1679 under Governor John Harvey. By virtue of his office as President of the Council, he was acting governor from 1672 to 1676, and from 1679 to 1681. Between his terms as acting governor he took a leading part in Culpeper’s Rebellion. His death occurred on December 17, 1681. Jenkins’ name appears in connection with several of the following documents.
2 John Harvey came to the Albemarle from Virginia about 1658 and brought in seventeen persons. He had a grant of land on what has since been known as Harvey’s Neck. As indicated here, he was a member of the council in 1670 under Governor Stephens, and assistant to Governor Peter Carteret in 1672. He seems to have taken no part in Culpeper’s Rebellion, and from February, 1679, until his death in August he served as governor of the colony by appointment of the Lords Proprietors. Their instructions to him have been printed (Colonial Records, I, 235-239). His wife was Dorothy Tooke of Isle of Wight County, Virginia, who may have been related to Thomas Tuke one of a group of men who bought land from the Indians in 1648 between the mouth of the Roanoke River and Weyanoke Creek.
3 Richard Foster appears in records of Lower Norfolk County, Virginia, as early as 1641; a member of the House of Burgesses from that county in 1655-1656 with the title of captain; and still living in Virginia in 1659. By 1670 he was in Carolina and a member of the governor’s council under Samuel Stephens; he held the same position under Peter Carteret (1670-1672), John Harvey (1679), and John Jenkins (1680). In 1675 he held the rank of lieutenant colonel. His home seems to have been in the Lower Precinct of yt County called Corrituck. He was the only Proprietary Deputy to take part in Culpeper’s Rebellion, the records of which indicate that he was a level-headed advisor who was referred to as thier cheefe Judge. His name appears in several of the following documents.
4 Francis Godfrey may have been the one of that name of Suffolk who was graduated A.B. from Peterhouse, Cambridge University, in 1629. As indicated here, he was a member of the council under Governor Stephens. His will, dated October 20, 1675, was proved in November, and he left a widow, Joane, and two sons. John Culpeper, later leader of the rebellion, was one of the witnesses to his will.
5 At a time when Francis Willoughby, Lord Willoughby of Parham, was Lieutenant General of the Caribbee Islands and Lord William Willoughby was governor of Barbadoes, John Willoughby was active in Carolina. What the relation was among these men, if any, has not been traced. In 1670 Willoughby was deputy in Carolina for the Earl of Shaftesbury as well as Regester publique of the Country. He was a member of the council in 1670 under Stephens, in 1679 under Harvey, and in 1680 under Jenkins. Between 1693 and 1705 his name appears frequently on Perquimans jury lists.
As a judge he was described as arbitrary and having a natural habit of pride or ambition. He once defied a summons to court, beat the officer delivering it, and fled the colony to return only at the time of Culpeper’s Rebellion in which he played a leading role. He is said to have gone with George Durant to England as an agent following the rebellion to cover all their actions over in England that truth might not come to light.
In January, 1681, he was said to be 60 years of age. He and his wife Deborah were the parents of twins, John and Deborah, born March 13, 1686.
6 For a contemporary copy of a document dated May 16, 1671, which falls chronologically between this document and the next one, see document no. 22. This is a copy prepared in April, 1672, to be sent to the Proprietors.
1 See document no. 9.
2 Frances Culpeper, widow of Governor Samuel Stephens who died before March 7, 1670, was married later that year to Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia and one of the Lords Proprietors. After Berkeley’s death in 1677 she married Col. Philip Ludwell who later became governor of Carolina with residence in Charleston. As the widow of Governor Stephens, she owned Roanoke Island, and at Berkeley’s death she received her husband’s Proprietary share in Carolina.
3 Robert Holden may have been the one of this name from Kent admitted to Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1654 at the age of 16. This document is our earliest reference to him in association with Carolina. He seems to have reached Virginia by early December, 1671, if he is the same Holden referred to in the next document. By 1675 he was Secretary in Albemarle, a position he apparently held until 1677 and occupied again from 1679 to 1684. He also was a member of the governor’s council in 1679 and 1680. Apparently he was in and out of the colony a number of times; a contemporary report says he was a Ringleader in Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia. He was in Boston in the late spring of 1679, having recently arrived from England. It was he who brought over the commission from the Proprietors making John Harvey governor; at the same time he, himself, was appointed collector of customs for Albemarle, a position he seems to have filled to the satisfaction of all concerned. In February, 1679, he was commissioned by the Proprietors to be commander in chief of a body of men to explore parts of the province not already discovered either on this side or beyonde the Apaletean Mountaines. At the same time he also held authority to looke after Receive and Recover all Wrecks Ambergrice or any other Ejections of the Sea. In the spring of 1707 he was living in London and wrote a brief statement on Carolina for the Proprietors. It was during the same year that the Proprietors sought royal approval of Holden’s appointment to be governor of the Bahamas, though it is doubtful that he ever served.
4 I have been unable to identify Benjamin Swerin.
5 The Ashley River settlement (originally intended to be made at Port Royal—see document no. 14) was at this time on the south side of the river opposite modern Charleston, S. C. In 1680 the colonists removed to Oyster Point at the junction of the Ashley and Cooper rivers and, by direction of the Proprietors, named the place Charles Town.
6 Thomas Harris apparently was clerk to the council. He was in the colony as early as 1665 when he was clerk of the court in Albemarle County, a position he also held in 1673 and 1675. One of this name died in September, 1679, in Berkeley (later Perquimans) Precinct.
1 Nansemond was the Virginia county directly north of the Chowan River region of Carolina.
2 Perhaps the Thomas Eastchurch of Devon who was graduated from Queen’s College, Oxford, 1628. This letter indicates that he had been in Albemarle County in 1671 or earlier; he certainly was there in 1673 when he was appointed guardian of three Albemarle County orphans. In 1675 he was speaker of the assembly and the following year went to England where he met some of the Lords Proprietors. They found him to be a gentleman of a very good family and ... a very discreet and worthy man and... very much concerned for your prosperity and welfaire, they wrote the Albemarle County assembly. Eastchurch is said to have been related to Thomas Clifford who was Lord High Treasurer in 1672, and the Proprietors saw fit to make him governor of Albemarle and all such settlements as shall be made upon the Rivers Pampleco and Newse. He returned to America by way of Antigua and Nevis. On the latter island, lighting upon a woman yt was a considerable fortune [he] took hold of the opportunity [and] married her. He sent Thomas Miller ahead to be deputy governor until he arrived in Albemarle. Eastchurch reached Virginia in the summer of 1677, but armed participants in Culpeper’s Rebellion prevented his going into the colony he was to govern. About five weeks after reaching Virginia he developed a fever and died there.
1 James Blount was living in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, as early as 1660 but moved to Albemarle in 1669. As indicated here, he was a member of the council by 1672, and a record of January 31, 1679, indicates that he was a member of the assembly. In spite of his being a member of the Great Councill or Assistant to the Deputies he was one of the leaders of Culpeper’s Rebellion. His will, dated March 10, 1685, was proved before Seth Sothel in July, 1686; he was survived by his wife, three sons, and two daughters. His wife, Anne Willis of Ipswich, Massachusetts, had been previously married, and after Blount’s death she married Seth Sothel.
2 Thomas Jarvis settled in the Albemarle before 1663, perhaps as early as 1658. This document, of course, indicates that he was a member of the council in 1672; he also was in the assembly in 1677. He may have returned to Virginia briefly, as one Thomas Jarvis was a member of the House of Burgesses there in 1682. From 1691 to 1694 he was governor of Carolina north east of the Cape Fear. A will dated 1682 indicates that his wife was named Dorcas. Jarvis has been described as a man of sterling character and sound judgment.
3 In 1657 William Jennings patented 350 acres in Surry County, Virginia, and in 1663 patented 550 acres on New Begun Creek in the Albemarle settlement. In 1672 he was a member of the council and in 1677 of the assembly. In the latter year he also was a leader in Culpeper’s Rebellion. He was spoken of as old Wm. Jennings in 1679, and his house was at ye uppr ende of Pasquotanck River. His will, dated January 24, 1687, from Pasquotank, was probated in April; he left property to two daughters, a son, and a son-in-law. The WI symbol with his name undoubtedly is his mark.
One Wm. Jennens arrived at Plymouth, England, in October, 1675, but whether it was this one we do not know.
4 Edmund Chancy probably was quite young when he served on this council in 1672. In 1714 one Edmund Chancy (presumably the same) patented 553 acres at Knobbes Creek, Pasquotank Precinct, but it was not settled in 1720 when it was declared lapseable. Four years later, however, he was able to redeem a portion of it. In 1735 it was reported that he owned 1,031 acres in Pasquotank. Chancy must have been in the neighborhood of 100 years of age at the time of his death in 1753. His will dated that year left extensive property, both real and personal, but he apparently outlived his wife and several children as most of his wealth was left to grandchildren.
5 At the time of this document Pearce or Pierce apparently could not write his name, although a member of the council. The O between his given and surnames appears to be his mark. The will of John Pierce of Perquimans Precinct in 1682 lists a son, Thomas. In 1685 Thomas was a collector of quit rents in Albemarle, and between 1693 and 1705 his name appears as a jury member in Perquimans. In 1694 he proved that he had brought nine people into the colony, and before the end of the century he owned 200 acres of land. He was living as late as 1712 when he was executor of the will of Francis Petit, his wife’s brother. By his wife Mary he had a son John, born July 30, 1691, and another, Thomas, born November 24, 1693.
6 Valentine Bird, speaker of the council in 1672, was appointed collector of customs by the council in 1675. The following year a duly appointed collector, bearing proper credentials from England, arrived, but Bird refused to yield the office peaceably. He was one of the leaders in Culpeper’s Rebellion and spoken of at this time as Captain. Bird died before January 31, 1680, and his estate was inventoried at £583/1/3 on August 2 of that year.
1 This is in the same hand and applies to the Instructions above. The Harvey letter, added at the bottom of the page, is an autograph letter signed by Harvey.
1 See document no. 22.
1 See note 2, document no. 12.
1 I have been unable to identify Medgeley.
2 This last entry appears to be in Carteret's hand.
3 I have been unable to identify Harbin. He perhaps was a merchant.
1 John Buckworth was a London merchant of some prominence. In 1664 he was appointed to a commission to buy tin from Cornwall and Devon mines. He was knighted at Windsor Castle in 1681.
1 Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, died on December 9, 1674, at Rouen in Northern France where he was living in exile.
2 Cornelius Van Tromp (1629-1691) was a Dutch naval commander from the age of 19 and frequently fought against the English. He was, however, received with honor by Charles II when he visited England in 1675.
3 Francis Lovelace (c.1621-1675), was the second English governor of New York. His mother was a sister of Sir Edwin and George Sandys of the Virginia Company, and his brother was Richard Lovelace, the poet. New York fell to a Dutch naval squadron, July 30-August 9, 1673, while he was in Connecticut. In January, 1675, as a result of the loss of New York and for other reasons, he was imprisoned in the Tower.
4 This 25th Jan. 1674 from London My Aunt will you please deliver to Cousin Pré your son my horse with his equipment which I left in your safekeeping at my departure from Jersey and as much as I have sold the whole thing to my said Cousin for which he has given me satisfaction and paid and this present order will serve you as a discharge toward the one who is &c
Your very obliged
For family Rachel Miss laCloche nephew &c
at St. Petr Jersey Geo Carterett
For an explanation of the apparent relationship between Sir George Carteret and Peter Carteret see note 2, document no. 1. Mr. A. S. H. Dickinson, Librarian of the Public Library, Jersey, thinks that Cousin Pré undoubtedly is a contraction for Cousin Pierre—Peter. Rachel La Cloche was the mother of Peter Carteret, and St. Peter, one of the twelve Jersey parishes, was the home of Peter’s parents.
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