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Second Continuation of the Reports on the Undertaking of several Helmstaedt Professors for North Carolina
His Highness, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick and Lueneburg, 50 Rthlr.
Alterode, in Mansfeld
The Rev. Mr. Hagemann.
His Excellence, Privy Councillor Feronce of Rotencreutz, for a book on Natural History, 10 Rthlr.
Madame Rolfs, (to Rev. Rosehen) for a book on Natural History, intended for a pastor’s library in North Carolina.1 10 Rthlr.
General Supt. Dahme, for N. 1, 2. and the Second Catechism,—1 Rthlr.
Mr. K. v. d. B. (additional) 5 Rthlr.
Mr. Diephuizen of Middleburg in Zeeland, through G.G.B., N. 7.
Mr. Engelhart, through R. B., N. 7.
Mr. Jacobi, student of Amsterdam, through G. G.
Mr. A. L. Miran, through G. G. B.
Mr. J. H. Mueller of Amsterdam, through G. G. B., N. 7.
Mr. Bandelin, teacher in the gymnasium, donates 1 Rthlr., 9 ggr. For copies of the Second Catechism, for poor children in N. Car., by several intimate friends of the Author, donated 10 Rthlr.
In 1773 there was left in London a surplus sum of money, which was mentioned in the first issue of these Reports, page 13. Of this sum, (according to a communication of the Bishop of Hereford, Dr. Butler) 40 pounds sterling were considered the pledged support of the local society for the spreading of the Gospel. Thirty guineas were transmitted directly from there to North Carolina. The remainder, in keeping with the wishes of Mr. Nüssmann’s congregation, was deposited by the privy counciller of justice of that place with 370 Rthlr. in gold in Hanover to my credit, as Abbot Velthusen, for which bound copies of our textbooks will be demanded.
Meanwhile this sum, independent of the fund, has been safely deposited in Hanover until after sending several sample copies in advance to the Rev. Mr. Nüssmann, we receive more definite instructions from him as to which special publications might there again be most readily sold, because after this money has served its original purpose it is to be deposited as a productive investment by the Evangelical Dutch Buffaloe Creek Congregation, and the interest accruing from it is to be applied as an increase in the pastor’s salary of that charge.
The German congregation of Charleston, which consists of fraternally united members of the Lutheran, Reformed and Catholic churches, subscribed 20 guineas, for which we are to send bound copies of our religious textbooks to be used by them in the instruction of their youth, in which their joint pastor, Mr. Faber, secured last year from Tuebigen, is now successfully engaged. [It should, however, also be mentioned] that, Apr. 28, of this year, through the kind offices of Mr. John. Chr. Goertz, a wine-dealer of Bremen, some of the earlier sample copies had already been forwarded to this congregation.
This money, the pastor, Mr. Faber, has been requested to deposit there for safe-keeping so that in case of unexpected embarrassment he might in our behalf, and according to his judgment, offer help to the pastors in Charleston, who have been, or later shall be sent there by us.
From several of our noble-minded countrymen and fellow-believers, such as Messrs. Faber and Gaebel, we already have proof and assurance that such preachers for North Carolina, who did not by mere chance, and trusting wholly to good luck, enter upon such a hazardous journey, but who were following a definite call, would be received in a brotherly, cordial, and generous spirit by them, and, also as far as it is possible would receive help for their further journey.
Our first preacher, Mr. Storch, whose last letter from this country, dated May 2, ult., at the mouth of the Weser, on board a ship, arrived safe and sound on June 27, in Baltimore. In a letter dated July 17, and received in Bremen by our friend, Conon Nicolai, he himself says: The journey in general was exceedingly short and pleasant. We experienced neither storm nor any other unpleasant accidents. Country, people, and mode of living please me quite well. In a few days I expect to go from here to Charleston and thence overland to North Carolina.
Our second pastor, Mr. Arnold Roschen, went by boat on Sep. 5, from Bremen, his native city, directly to Charleston, where he has relatives. Since he in his great desire to enter upon such a calling, offered to make this journey at his own expense, our society considered it only fair to appropriate freewillingly to him a sum of 100 Rthlr. from the funds, entrusted to us by magnanimous friends for judicious distribution, and furthermore to have all the assistance offered us in America directed upon him personally.
For although in general it is quite contrary to our plan, to appoint for the two or three transportations, to which for the present, our obligation had to be restricted, such men who had not been reared and educated under our own observation, nevertheless there were not only in Mr. Roschen’s letters declarations which were bound to arouse love and confidence in him, but he was furthermore very emphatically recommended by two men, who have shown a very helpful interest in our undertaking, and whose testimony carries the greatest weight with the public. These men are the very meritorious General-Superintendent, D. Pratje in Stade, presiding officer of the churches in the Duchies of Bremen and Verden, who has long since tested him and found him capable of the duties of a pastor; and the beloved Conon Nicolai, in Bremen, to whose instruction, and also to that of the late Mr. Walch and other famous teachers of Goettingen our Mr. Roschen owes his education. The Royal Consistory in Stade has therefore also at our request granted to Mr. Roschen the same assurance which by our gracious Sovereign had kindly been granted our first pastor, under all circumstances to credit and reward his loyalty shown in North Carolina in such a way as if he had spent these years in the service of his own native land. And Mr. Roschen’s ordination, through Supt. Riefesthal with the assistance of the other canons in Bremen, likewise followed (immediately) in consequence of a special decree of the Royal Consistory in Stade.
To a third candidate of the Royal Consistory in Hanover, now sojourning in the county of Bentheim, who primarily through his ardent zeal for teaching the catechism has attracted our attention, we have given the first claim to the third congregation and have offered him all possible help, under certain conditions which were imposed for his own safety, and which we have every reason to believe will readily be satisfied.
We however request our friends in North Carolina and Charleston to appoint some legally authorized persons in Bremen, (or Hamburg) who, as soon as we have furnished prepaid transportation for a preacher, or for books as far as Charleston, will at once assume all further supervision, arrangement and responsibility; not only because we otherwise, quite contrary to our original purpose, would prematurely exhaust our already seriously depleted fund, but also because without any such arrangement on their part we would feel compelled to withdraw all  further cooperation after the third transportation, (which indeed is all we actually promised.) But on the other hand, if as much help as possible is forthcoming from them, we might indeed, as suggested above, offer considerable assistance not only in the matter of supplying literature but also in matters pertaining to the churches in general.
Our cash receipts to date amount to 1409 Rthlr. 6 ggr. This sum, if the two pastors already sent over by us will not meet with exceptionally untoward circumstances, will very likely enable us to do more than we had promised, or indeed could promise. In the fourth and last number of our textbooks, to be published about Easter, 1789, we will indicate the total disbursements as well as the surplus, and, as far as possible, the supply of books still belonging to the fund. We will furthermore, on this occasion give to the public satisfactory assurance of the efficient administration of the property thus acquired for the German Evangelical Church of North Carolina.
With regard to the two pastors, previously sent over by us, we already have most reassuring reports from two congregations. Still, on this matter our readers will no doubt prefer to hear the man himself speak, whose convincing language, even in his first communication already won the hearts of many noble-minded friends. On the ninth of April of this year, we had the pleasure of receiving a second letter from North Carolina dated, Buffaloe Creek, Mecklenburg County, from Sep. 26th to Oct. 2nd, 1787, of which we feel obligated to give to the generous promoters of our enterprise the excerpt in full, as it is already recorded in print in the Historical Portfeuille (June); especially since they can best see from this in what spirit their love for humanity was received and acknowledged by our brethren of that country.—Here are Nüssmann’s own words:
When I received the delightful reports from Germany I tried, as soon as possible, to make them known among the German congregations, which, however required some time, since in the absence of any printing facilties one is obliged to travel on horesback and tell the people orally. All are highly rejoicing in a kind Providence which has awakened such altruistic friends who are willing to assist the poor American church in its spiritual needs. They praised God aloud and rendered thanks, frequently with tears.
Ever since the time when this beneficent deed was first known to us we have, in our religious services, been utilizing both the sermon and the following prayer to render thanks to God and to implore Him that the benefactors may be strengthened in their altruistic tendency, that the generous-minded preachers may be kept from all harm on the sea, and (finally) that the books, so specially arranged for our circumstances, might produce in a twofold measure the effect for which they were intended.
In the meantime I have had many important things to consider and to provide for. These preachers will perhaps come soon, or they are  perhaps already prepared to start. Consequently the first necessary consideration was to provide a definite position for two or three preachers in North Carolina, and to arrange everything in such a manner that, upon their arrival, they may know just where to go, and may be received with carriage and horses; likewise to secure a decent, clean house for them to live in.
And, as far as circumstances permit, this has already been done, thanks to God! So that whenever they come we may find genuine pleasure in their arrival. As soon as their coming is made known to us, everything will be done to assist them. This journey, however, to the remotest parts of the several congregations has taken the greater part of my time until far into September. Messrs. Christopher Bernhard and Gottfried Arnd have been, and still are, very helpful to me in this matter.
The former is a young, educated man from Wuertemberg with considerable ability, about 24 years old, in whom I can see daily that the gospel truths, which he preaches, are a vital matter in his own young life. He preaches for the lower Second Creek charge in Peint Church, and in several other churches besides. His uncle, the Rev. Mr. Bernhard, is Special Superintendent in Stuttgart. The second one is known to you,2 and preaches for the four Catabaw congregations. He is loved and honored by his people.
Through Mr. Daser’s departure from Charleston the convention scheduled for the 23rd Sunday after Trinity was cancelled. He had obligated himself as far as possible for the union of the Evangelical churches in these free states. An assembly of the congregations was arranged in South Carolina, whither I with several delegates from North Carolina intended to go, and from there we expected to write to Germany. The petition, strengthened by the convention, I expected to have printed in Germany. God, however, has drawn me there earlier, against my wishes. Meanwhile, however, I thought I had every reason to believe that the Evangelical church of Charleston, which has so many intelligent members, and for so many years has preserved such good order, would soon procure another pastor or would come to some agreement with Mr. Daser.
Rumor had it that the congregation had written to Wuertemberg for a new pastor. Now, it was my hope that when this one came the good cause of uniting into a Corpus Evangelicorum would take place. But when will he come? Consequently there was not much consolation in this anticipation.
To be sure the congregation had read the letters, for Mr. Abraham Markley, a merchant, who received them open from Mr. Daser, sent them to me in a sealed envelope.
 Meanwhile on the 11th of Sept. a new ray of hope dawned upon me.— Mr. Bernhard, who was fully informed of my worry, came riding a distance of twelve miles to bring the glad news that a reliable drayman had, toward the end of August, seen a new preacher for the congregation in Charleston. Some believe he is from Wuertemberg. Be that as it may, if he is only equipped with scholarship, a sense of justice and human love, all will be well. That is often the case. In divinely appointed tasks often thick, heavy stones are lodged in the way, and as soon as one is certain that human strength cannot remove them, they disappear by a higher power. I will at least place my trust in Him. In this epoch of the Evangelical Church in our free states He will not fail to reveal Himself and put His helpful hand to the task. Until the arrival of our brethren we three will have a large area to cover on horseback, and will have to look after the interests of some twenty congregations.
One thing more I must mention in order that my statement, that I had been appointed as third commissioner of an academy to be founded in Salisbury, might not be misunderstood. By an academy the English people here do not mean what we Germans call an academy. It is a mere beginning of a school system in a rough, wild country where forty years ago there were few or no inhabitants whatsoever, excepting the Indians. Several of my English grammar schools, if they united their children, might constitute a modest gymnasium, which, if supported by smaller subordinate schools and subscriptions,—since there is no fund,— might grow and develop. Now in order to promote this, thirty or more trustees or Commissioners, are appointed by the Assembly, among whom there are three (Lutheran) preachers, two Presbyterians and myself. Among the other trustees there are also Germans. Nine trustees, or commissioners, constitute a board, which decides matters by a majority vote. Building expenses are here met by subscriptions, other expenses by a voluntary society, or lottery. One sees that the whole matter is still in its infancy, and one should not think more of me, or of the academy, than what is really true. The undertaking is a good one. May God prosper this cause and grant that at least one German teacher may be among them. There is some hope for this, but as yet only a weak hope, because the salary must be made up by subscription, for which many have already declared their willingness. Mr. Corkle, a very affable Presbyterian Minister, who usually presides, requests you and the academy in Helmstaedt to furnish a good book on the work of the schools; very much depends on the first foundation, and we have no good books for that.
In the matter of salaries my incoming good brothers have no cause for hesitation. As yet circumstances would not permit any insisting on legally binding promise. However the oral promise through delegates in the presence of witnesses is sufficiently binding for them. The delegates will also promise, indeed have already promised, to give them a written  call, indicating the salaries, as soon as they arrive. They will not be inclined to dismiss conscientious pastors, since they have paid and kept inferior and undesirable preachers for periods of four or five years.—[You ask] How high the salary is likely to be?
The first charge in Guilford County consisting of four churches I believe, will, with incidentals offer more than 100 Lbs. rather than less. This German settlement is located at some distance along the Haw River, extends over about 28 miles, from Rock River at the right to a considerable distance beyond Great Alamance Creek on the left, and is about 18 miles wide in the middle, where many good Evangelical people live, who in all their four churches have no preacher. These four congregations were assembled through their delegates and made the promise mentioned above. And I wish with all my heart that they had a preacher.
On Abbots Creek is the other settlement for the second preacher, about 14 miles long and 10 miles wide. On the upper end it is connected with the (Moravian) Herrnhut Settlement, which has 6 large churches. These numerous people of the Evangelical Faith have in [their] three churches no preacher. They, too, were assembled through their delegates and promised to secure, and pay for, a preacher as the enclosed letter of Mr. Bernhard will confirm. The salary amounts to about 80 Lbs. But it has outlying constituencies which will increase this salary.
Ebenezer in Georgia, if it is without a preacher, would be a very important place for us. Letters have been sent there, but so far no answer has arrived. If Mr. Faber of Charleston should come to the interview, fixed for Oct. 31, in Camden, or if he will communicate by letter, this matter will soon be cleared up.
If only my brothers were with me! God will be sure to keep us. Our mode of living, here, to be sure, is somewhat crude, but through practice it becomes a part of our nature. The wilderness has indeed become much more agreeable during the time that I have known it. May God preserve your courage, my brother! It was much wilder here only 14-15 yrs. ago; scarcely any acquaintances and many enemies; many and yet God, the faithful Lord, has helped. When you after 14 years write to your native land, who knows what good things you will then be able to say about this wilderness?
Here I will add several important domestic observations. We wear all sorts of dark colors, gray, brown, blue. Since we always ride horseback on our travels the more delicate colors would not serve our purpose. Nevertheless while administering the Lord’s supper or on other festival occasions it is customary to be dressed in black, if one has the clothes. A good raincoat if it is rainproof, is better than an overcoat, and is  necessary on our frequent travels. Good linen is scarce here and very expensive, consequently it would be good if our incoming brothers supplied themselves with it before they start. They can have shirts made here cheaper than in Germany, and it would be better to bring their material uncut, but of medium grade, and not much fancy stuff, for here we must pay more attention to wearing qualities than to finery. Boots are used while riding, heavier ones in the winter, and lighter ones in summer; and while walking in the forest one is protected against bites of snakes, of which the poisonous varieties, however, are rather scarce. For as the settlement grows in population their number is gradually decreased. Light boots in the summer also protect one against ticks, very harmless, to be sure, but nevertheless a very annoying variety of vermin, which hang in clusters like dust on the grass, and, when touched, cling to ones legs by the hundreds, causing an annoying itching on the entire body. So far, however, they have never attached themselves to my boots. Wigs we do not need. We wear our natural hair short, trimmed in English fashion, without any artificiality, without curls, powder or the like. All this would be something unusual among us.—While at home we wear thin clothes in summer.—The dressing-gown is unknown here. Thin trousers of wide cut, and ankle length, usually of linen, interwoven with blue threads. Black silk neckties are very convenient—. This one thing above all I wish and request, that no one come in here who was already married in Germany. It would have to be miraculous if he were not to meet with a thousand sad experiences. An American wife is in our circumstances infinitely better adapted.
Mr. Bernhard’s enclosed communication
The German settlement in Guilford County lies about 70 English miles north of Salisbury, and is 28 miles long and 18 miles wide. Many hundreds of families live here close together. For many years they have been without a preacher, exposed to roaming fanatics, who in some places have already found a considerable following among the ignorant. There are four Evangelical churches here, which for some years have been standing vacant and deserted. Still occasionally they are filled by the shallow noise of an untutored fanatic, for whom it is an easy matter through the noise of violent words to engage the imagination of his audience, at least for a short time, and to win the approval of an ignorant, superstitious and fanatic people. It is high time that these poor congregations, among whom still many are found who sincerely long for the Gospel, should receive help, if they are not to degenerate completely into a state of heathendom. Therefore we considered  it necessary to visit these congregations first, and to announce to them the generous offer which, after reading the letters from Helmstaedt, aroused in us such genuine joy.
We arranged then, after the close of the service, that all four congregations should send delegates to an appointed place, where we might take council about the matter.
These delegates were then informed how, through the help of God and through the sincere altruism of several highminded friends of the Christian religion, a way had now been paved for them in Helmstaedt for the advancement of Christianity. The main facts of the printed and written reports were read to them.— The joy that came to these good people with this news is not to be described.—Tears, broken words and sobs revealed the emotions of their hearts.
They were then asked whether they would accept one of these preachers and provide for him a satisfactory support. Thereupon they assured us with one accord that they henceforth would have nothing more to do with those fanatic false teachers, which heretofore they, for the want of a good preacher, had tolerated in their midst. They promised to receive one of these preachers as soon as they were informed of his arrival in Charleston and to take his baggage here on a wagon, also to assume responsibility for all necessary expenses connected with his coming, and henceforth to provide him with abundant support.
The names of the delegates are as follows:
First congregation: David Tranberger, Peter Schmid, Dewald Fuchs, John Oberle.
They requested that we in our letters to Germany should express in their behalf sincere thanks to the beneficent brethren and nobleminded friends, and reaffirmed repeatedly that they would apply these gifts according to the intentions of the benefactors, and would love the pastor assigned to them as their father and revere him as their teacher and support him in everything according to the circumstances of their strength.
When now this business had been transacted to the general satisfaction of all, a seventy year old man arose in the meeting and addressed us as follows: Dear men, since we are now placing ourselves wholly in your hands and with painful longing await the early arrival of the preachers, it seems to me to be no unreasonable request, if we ask you during this interval to visit us occasionally and to proclaim the Word of God among us.—
 The entire company expressed their approval and joined him in this request. However great the distance, however difficult such a journey, and however overcrowded our work in the other congregations was, we could not refuse such an urgent request. Consequently we promised during the interval, from now until the arrival of the preachers, to alternate in visiting them. Thus we left these congregations and continued our journey to the German congregations on Abbot’s Creek.
Abbots Creek, Sept. 21, 1787.
The German settlement, bearing this name located in the northern part of Rowan County and is about 14 miles long by 10 miles wide. There are three Evangelical churches here. But here, too, Christianity will fast approach its decline, unless immediate help is secured. In general one can say of the religion of the local Germans here what shortly before had been said of those in Guilford County. The absence of good preachers caused these people, who after all had a longing for the Gospel and would gladly have heard the Word of God, to take their refuge to such men, who, like roaming knights, traverse the land, and, after they were no longer able to make their living because of the evil conduct in their profession,—became preachers.
Here two delegates were selected by the three congregations who appeared at a definite place designated by us, where we, just as in Guilford County, read aloud to them the necessary things from the written and printed reports, which likewise proved to them a cause for general rejoicing.
To the question, whether they were willing to accept one of these preachers and to provide for him the necessary support, they answered with one accord that they would be genuinely glad if they could secure an honest Evangelical teacher who would live in their midst; that they would do all in their power to provide for his support;...........and that they would also keep a wagon in readiness to go after one of these preachers as soon as they were informed of his arrival in Charleston.
The names of the Delegates from the three congregations are as follows:
First Congregation: Philipp Fuchs.
In order to prevent frequent misunderstandings we find it necessary to explain very clearly at this time that we have never been willing to send over untrained school teachers. Their transportation charges would be no cheaper, and every educated minister could recruit them, even more satisfactorily, from his own community if we supply them with  the maximum number of books necessary for such purpose. Besides, it would involve us in an endless exchange of letters and enormous expense if we were to extend the relatively small assistance, at our disposal, to individuals who are personally unknown to us. [This would be unwise] as long as we are able to make selections from such persons who were reared under our own observation, whose character, skill, family connections and health we have observed and tested from time to time, and with whom we furthermore are able to discuss orally all essential matters.
How much, in general, we are willing to give due consideration to recommendations from men of high esteem and influence with the public, is shown by our procedure thus far, in as much as only one of the three ministers already appointed was a student of our own institution. In the remarks of many foreigners who, much to our increased annoyance, have made inquiries of us, we find all sorts of extravagant expectations, for which our public reports furnished no occasion or basis. They imagine beyond the ocean an independence and freedom, or at least such carefree days, which, if they ever could be allotted to mortal man, would frustrate the obvious plan of Providence to make men dependent upon each other and thus in our need to lead us to God. The most probable prospect, which we hold out to our wanderers, is a situation which offers infinitely more hardships and demands more adaptation to opposing opinions than they ever experienced in their native country. The following passage from the private letter of a worthy German Evangelical preacher in America was given to us by a reliable person:
Very much depends upon the greater or lesser degree of sensitiveness on the part of every individual preacher. Whoever is inclined to worry and feel offended over unfavorable and stupid remarks had better not come to America; and whoever has not sufficient strength of character to undertake unpleasant tasks, which are inevitable, would likewise do well to stay far from here. On every hand there are obstacles to overcome, but wise is he who does not magnify them through impatience. I myself have always been happiest when I bore the burdens laid upon me calmly, seldom, if ever made any complaints, and always fulfilled my duties. In fact, the actual pleasures of my situation would not have been appreciated so fully and so keenly, had not here and there a hardship made their need more obvious and their undisturbed enjoyment even more precious to me. But whoever has a genuine zeal for religion and shows a noble attitude toward life will find friends and support also in this country....
However, who on the other hand (we should like to add) complains in his Fatherland about adversity, envy, lack of appreciation, dependence upon consistories and doctrines, infringements upon freedom of thought and injustice from superiors, will find even more substance and nourishment for his discontent in a foreign hemisphere; and who simply will not be happy among acquaintances is in great danger of being infinitely less happy among strangers.
 We have just received a letter from the Rev. Mr. Storch of Baltimore dated July the sixteenth. Besides confirming the news already given to our readers our wanderer extols the great love and friendship with which a young German physician, Dr. Hinze, a native of Halberstadt, sought him out at an inn upon his arrival at Baltimore, and entertained him with food and lodging in his own house until the ship departed for Charleston, while at the same time he gave him valuable medical aid without cost.
The following books intended for pastor’s libraries have been sent with the copies of our Reports for the Second Number, to Rev. Storch, and paid from our fund:
Resewitz’—Education for Citizenship.
 Two copies of his own Sermons, in Excerpts, (1778-87),
Helmstaedt, Sep. 25, 1788.
J. C. Velthusen. H. P. C. Henke.
1 On this occasion we wish to announce to our friends in N. Car., especially Rev. Roschen, a very useful botanical publication, which, because it is published in Philadelphia, they can very easily secure there themselves:
Humphrey Marshall’s Arbustrum Americanum; The American Grove, or, an alphabetical catalogue of forest trees and shrubs, natives of the American United States, arranged according to the Linnaean system, containing some hints of their uses in medicine, dyes and domestic economy. Philadelphia (Publ. by) Crukshank, in Market Street, 1785, 8.º (169 pp.)
On this occasion we also request Prof. Kunze of New York, by means of his connections with Philadelphia, kindly to arrange for gifts of books on Natural History, especially on Botany which are printed in Philadelphia for the pastor’s labraries in North Carolina (For example, Catalogue of Plants, publ. by John & Wm. Bartram, botanists in Kingseffing.)
His zeal for everything that pertains to the welfare of the human race is guarentee to us that he will receive this request, and grant it as far as it is possible for him, in the same spirit that is prompting us to express our wish to him in this manner, due to the great difficulties involved in a correspondence with New York. This same favor we expect of Mr. Vaughan in Philadelphia, who was kind enough to call on us a few years ago in Helmstaedt, if by chance this historic preface should come to his observation.
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