NC Church Reports
North Carolina Office of Archives & History Department of Cultural Resources
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North
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Last Updated 03/02/01

[255]

North Carolina Church Reports


                                                                      

“North Carolina Church Reports, by Johann Caspar Velthusen, General Superintendent of the Duchies of Bremen and Verden. Second and Last Number: Containing at the same time a statement of the balance of accounts. Concordia res parval cresrunt. Stade. Printed by Henry Andrew Friedrich, Royally authorized Printer, 1792. Price: from 4 to 8 pennies (approximately) The proceeds, after deducting expenses, shall be distributed among the three poorest rural school teachers in our Duchies.”

Concerning the further success of the Auxiliary, established six years ago by an altruistic society of several professors in Helmstaedt for the benefit of our German brethren in North Carolina, the sympathetic public expects a fifth report. Without any fault of mine I have been obliged to delay this matter longer than I liked, but I hasten now to discharge this duty....

A letter from the Rev. Mr. Storch, dated Salisbury, February 20, 1791, reached me in exceptionally short time, having arrived May 30, of the some year. For the friends of this cause and of this man I will select several passages which, I trust, will be read with pleasure by everybody.

“The satisfaction with my situation here,” writes our young friend, “is increasing constantly. The more I harden my body through long strenuous walks, the more does my soul become accustomed to the hardships which are inseparable with a pastor’s calling in North Carolina.

“Often when I, in full health and on a beautiful day, ride around on my duties through the lonely forests and reflect upon the vicissitudes of my life, which so clearly reveal traces of a kind Providence presiding over me; when I picture to myself the numerous blessings which my Creator has bestowed upon me in body and soul, and daily continues to bestow, and the many good sympathetic friends which he has raised up for me even in this part of the world; and the many privileges which He has granted me above so many hundreds, who earn their daily bread with so much greater difficulties; when I vividly imagine all this, and at the same time, the sad condition of the slaves moving about me;— then I feel only half of the discomfort of my situation, but realize and appreciate with double strength how friendly and kind the Lord has been toward me. And when I then, filled with such contemplations, come into the church and behold my waiting congregation, my brothers and sisters; then my heart goes out and I hasten to express the feelings of my soul and my experiences to God’s people in prayer and discourse. And how rewarded, how rich, and how happy I feel if I, while leaving the church, observe in the case of this one or that one, that I have not preached in vain and that it is really true: what issues from the heart, again appeals to the heart!”

Then with regard to the “Helmstaedt Enterprise” he made the following statement:—“This will certainly not continue without blessings for mankind.”

“In nature,” he then continues, “nothing of importance has occurred to me that was not already known before. I had the intention one time to describe a shrub, which is called Sensible Briars, which at the [256] slightest touch moves throughout all its parts. But I fear this would not exactly be of any special interest.”1

“Sometime ago I found in an English book, printed in Philadelphia, 1787, the description of a plant, which is also supposed to grow in North Carolina, but which I have as yet not seen. This plant is called Dionaea Muscipula, or Venus’s Fly-trap.2 Each of its leaves represents a mouse trap in miniature, with tendrils which attach themselves to every fly or any other insect which tries to drink the sweet juice, that, as is believed, is hidden in the small acorns, or berries (glands). But before the insect has imbibed the juice the leaves contract and enclose it. The insect must die by means of the sting of three little thorns which stand erect in the interior, almost in the center of the leaves. The leaves furthermore do not open again as long as the dead insect is enclosed. In experiments with a straw or a needle they have observed the same behavior on the part of the plant.”

His question, whether translations of the most unusual things of the American Museum would be welcome in Germany, I venture boldly to answer in the affirmative, with the understanding, however, that this work should not cause him any extra exertion, which might prove injurious to his health, and that he merely undertake it as a respectable diversion during his recuperation. When such curiosities are reported to me in letters I shall gladly, and more speedily than it was possible for me this time, make these things accessible to the German public in some popular magazine, including also the name of the reporter.3

In this same letter the Rev. Mr. Storch reports that already at that time, from the proceeds of the textbooks contained in the 3 boxes from Rostock,4 the account of the 3705 Thalers, (meanwhile with accrued interest, 384 Thalers6) advanced from London in Hanover, had been settled; that he had shared with Rev. Roschen the surplus of these textbooks, just as he had shared the other books with Rev. Nüssmann. But because the establishing of a church library, in the manner recommended, was impossible he made to his colleagues the proposition (likewise in keeping with our plan and purpose), that they should select [257] from their own collections, a number of the most practical books as gifts to their successors, He furthermore reported that the excellent gift of Mr. Heyne,7 the set of die Goettinger Gelerten Auzeigen, had been allotted to Rev. Roschen.

As yet no letter addressed directly to me by Rev. Roschen has reached me. However this same friend to whom I owe the communication of the interesting letter in the 1st Number, has since then sent me a copy of a second letter addressed to a third friend, with the permission of making public use of it if I desired. In this letter our Roschen addressed himself to one of the most intimate friends of his youth, the Rev. Mr. Ippeken, of Halle, in the Duchy of Oldenburg; and indeed in a spirit which must necessarily win for him the hearts of all readers. This communication did not arrive until Whitsuntide 1791, but was already dated on the 7th of May 1790, North Carolina, in Rowan County on Abbots Creek.8 The letter follows:

Dear Friend and accomplice in all my fates: Even though I did not write you as yet, I have certainly been thinking of you all the more. Never did I realize so keenly what a friend is as now, since I am without one. Never did I love you more fervently than just now since your faithfulness, or with a word, your heart in all your previous dealings with me (even more than at that time when I was in your arms) is so vivid in my consciousness. No doubt you have learned from my letter to my mother and to the Rev. Mr. Nicolai, as well as to other friends, that I arrived at my destination here safe and sound. And even now, for which I cannot thank Heaven sufficiently, the Hand of the Almighty has no more forsaken me, than on my long and hazardous journey. Not an hour has passed as yet in which either my good wife or myself were afflicted with illness,—and the Hand which led us so far will also lead farther. Furthermore, I have also been able to bear all other burdens which have been placed upon me. Why should I then complain? You see, my dearest friend, I have four congregations in North Carolina who love me, and I dare say, also esteem me very highly.

To be sure, they are not lavish here with compliments, as in Germany. The heart, however, is much more manifest in such expressions of love than in the usual compliments. God has given me many friends, perhaps more than I deserve. Everybody is glad to see me and considers himself honored by my calls, whether he be rich or poor. Am I not really compelled to rejoice in my heart, when I see that they have such unlimited confidence in me, especially since I am still such a young man? Whenever there are dissensions in families I am at once called in to adjust them. (A rather sensitive matter, that.) If someone is involved in a love affair he is certain to confide it to me. Whenever I preach the church is crowded with people, and when I try to abolish a bad custom I at once receive support.

A few incidents will illustrate how they support me also in other matters. One time last winter I was sitting by my fireplace, smoking my pipe and reflecting upon my labors of the past day, when Colonel (L.) came to me. He was glad to find me at home, for he had ridden three miles in order to [258] visit me. I had a glass of cider brought up, and then we talked of a thousand different things. Suddenly my Colonel ceased talking, and after a little while he said: “What is this? a pastor on Abbotts Creek, and not even a pair of andirons in his fireplace?” (This is an apparatus of metal, which they are accustomed to place in a fireplace here, on which the wood is laid. They are used primarily, however, for decorative purposes.) “To be sure,” I answered, “a pastor on Abbotts Creek ought to have some, but where are they to be gotten in this region?” “Why!” said he, “I have several and our pastor furthermore may have his choice among them!” “But what if the pastor has no money?” said I, “Why, he doesn’t need any. It is not becoming here that a pastor should pay for such things!” ... In German money this was really a gift of the value of seven Thalers.

At another time I had a very poor bridle on my horse. “Why, here the pastor has a new one!” was his droll reply, and he handed it to me.

Some time later he observed that my horse was rather lean. “John,” said he, to his son, “You have some oats threshed, and send our colored man to the pastor with them tomorrow, why, his old critter can scarcely walk.” Thus, my dear Ibbeken, I fare in most things. Once I was riding through my central congregation with the Rev. Ahrend, who was visiting me for five days. We came to an old planter, whom Rev. Ahrend knew very well. “How are you getting along, old gentleman?” he said, “Are you now satisfied, since you have a young preacher from Germany?” “Yes,” answered the old man. “That we are, indeed, if we can only keep him!” Then Mr. Ahrend continued: “Do you also help him out a little, since he is only a young beginner, and you have more than you need?”—“Yes,” answered the old man, “Our pastor is so bashful and makes no demands. I recently brought him 100 lbs. of wheat flour and a smoked ham. If I only knew what he should like to have!” “Oh! I’ll tell you that,” said Mr. Ahrend. “The Rev. Mr. Roschen hasn’t quite finished building his house yet. He would like to have a hundred boards of flooring.” “If it’s nothing more than that, those he shall have.” Then he called his colored man and ordered him, at once, on the very next day, to have some of the best pine trees cut down and taken to the saw mill.—In this manner I could fill twenty sheets for you. Who in Germany, just to please a preacher, would abandon his work and ride with him a distance of 16 English miles and back? Only recently on my way to Salem, I had ridden 6 miles when I came to a planter, who said: “Whither bound?”— “To Salem,” was my answer. “Well, this wont do, that our pastor has no company.” Jestingly I said: “Supposing you furnish that?” “Most gladly,” was his reply. “Fred, go and saddle my horse!”

But not only in this respect was Heaven kind to me, but also in the fact that I am swamped with work, which for us mortals, next to health, is the greatest gift. In regions in which the affairs of the church are not yet well organized, a teacher has a full burden with four congregations. The visiting of the sick, funerals, and other pastoral duties call for a great deal of time, when the distances are so far, and I am usually genuinely tired when evening comes. I preach only once every Sunday. (But also on every holiday, or church festival.) Thus I make the rounds every four weeks. I usually work out my sermons completely. Often, however, I am obliged to preach from an outline, which is generally the case at funerals, when one [259] frequently has little more time than enough to choose a text. Through practice my work is however becoming easier daily, and my sermons are easily memorized, once they are down on paper. I preach only one hour, but endeavor to be as popular as possible. One must after the fashion of the Apostle, serve milk, rather than strong foods. However, a sermon that is to please, must, at least at the end, contain a touch of pathos. But I do not want to anticipate, for also on this point you will soon read something in one of your popular journals, in an article by me, which contains the report of a journey from the region of Salisbury in N. C. to New Virginia near the Blue Ridge Mountains.9 There you will find many things that will certainly be new and interesting to you, which I furthermore cannot very well explain in letters. This journey belongs to the most valuable experiences which I, with great obstacles, am obliged to make here in North America, but which shall also never be forgotten by both of us.

As far as my local associations with my friends are concerned I must say that they are very limited, partly because my official duties occupy me too much, and also because we live at such great distances from each other. My colleagues are the following: The Rev. Mr. Nüssmann, in Mecklenburg County, lives about 40 miles from me. Rev. Storch, in Salisbury, is my good friend, He enjoys the affectionate devotion of all his congregations, and deserves it, too. He lives in Salisbury, a place with about 50 or 60 houses of which only ten are German homes. Some few in the vicinty of Salisbury, who are unable to support a separate pastor, have joined this congregation. Mr. Ahrend, on the Catawba, is the third German pastor of this section. He is now the wealthiest among us and has numerous plantations and slaves, but very few children. He came as a religious teacher with Rev. Nüssmann from Germany. Now he is ordained. He enjoys the love of his congregations. The fourth, Mr. Bernhard, is 60 miles from me and lives in Guilford County.10

Another German pastor in the general region of Mr. Storch’s charge is Mr. Stanger, one of the best of men. He had requested me to secure for him the appointment in New Virginia while I was there, and since I had many friends there. This was also accomplished. Since I have long wished for them a pastor, he will depart to these congregations within two weeks. Besides these there are a considerable number of German preachers here, especially of the Reformed Church.

With regard to my private affairs, I want you to know that already a considerable part of my plantation is paid for. I have furthermore a horse, two cows, one calf, thirteen dogs, six hogs, chickens, geese, ducks of three different varieties, guineas, turkeys, and pigeons. A young man, whose parents are dead, is staying with me, likewise a girl. The young fellow tills the soil and I also am not lazy when I am at home. It costs too much money to complete my house, otherwise I might have made a little more progress. But just be patient, Time will mature roses. I can grow almost every thing on my plantation that I desire; wheat, oats, tobacco, cotton, indigo, buckwheat, flax, hemp, maize. Strawberries grow here wild in immense quantities, likewise [260] mulberries, grapes and chestnuts. Almost all trees in the forest bear edible fruits. A variety of tea grows wild here, which I prefer to all teas grown in the Orient.

The Sugar trees11 furnish some sugar. Besides this there are peaches in great abundance on the plantations. The finest that I ever saw before are nothing compared with these. They grow in such abundance that they are used to fatten hogs. Furthermore there are apples, pears, and cherries; and especially melons in great abundance and rich varieties. Yet why enumerate all these? The best is lacking for me anyway. My wife loves me and makes life pleasant for me. Heaven granted us a little girl, that is now nine months old and dispels all gloom or ill will. When my brow begins to contract into ominous folds and she begins to stammer “Papa” or “Mama,” then all frowning disappears. It is a great happiness to have children.

The young man and also the young girl, who are staying with us, are very respectable and obliging.—Quarrel and strife are not allowed under my roof, and beneath it I am absolute master. Separated from people I have a very independent life on my plantation; free as the birds of the air. I can rise in the morning and retire in the evening when I wish, excepting when my official duties interfere. We grow almost everything we need, without expenses. Our garden is one of the very best. If you could supply us with some of the more rare varieties of seeds, such as cauliflowers, savoy, etc., we would be very obliged to you. There is also no lack of beverages. Only the wine is expensive. I must pay twenty Gutegroschen (pense) a quart; and that is of the very worst. I drink cider and a beverage made of cider and spirits distilled from the juice of Apples, (Appelbramtrwein), which keeps as well as wine, suits my taste just as well, and in color, brilliancy and clearness surpasses even the white French wine. The people here in general, however, drink [261] much rum and other distilled wines, which I do not like. Good beer is also made here. The water is healthful, at least on my plantation, on which I have five springs. My house is located in the center of the cleared land, which is cultivated, and contains about thirty or forty acres. Evereything [sic] else round about is forest. My entire farm contains more than two hundred acres. And yet, my dear, how I wish I were with you! How much better I would feel!

In the German settlement much German is spoken; elsewhere, however, all speak English. Without this language no one can get along. Even the Germans rather speak English than German. During my stay in America I have already learned enough to read, write and speak English, but I still prefer to speak German. I perform marriage ceremonies in the English as well as in the German. My fixed salary has been considerably increased for this second year. A good sign; but this is rather unusual here in America.

My wife sends thousand greetings to you, dearest Ibbeken.—“If he were only still in Salisbury,” we often say, “how happily we would then live!”— From the world of letters gather for me as much news as you can, and send me articles which are not difficult for you to secure. I could pay you for them, but I know of no convenient way to do that. Please inform me of everything that concerns America, especially North Carolina. Perhaps in this way I can find more opportunities of being helpful.

May the Lord bless and keep you! May He grant you happy days and help you to a good wife, who will make the remainder of your life pleasant for you. Depend upon Him alone and make use of your own resources, and all shall certainly be well with you. Be sure not to trust too much in men.

Perhaps after a dozen years I shall see you again. How rapidly they will pass! I want to stay where I am, and will not be deluded, in order that my Fatherland may at some time again gladly receive me into its arms.12 And then the consciousness of having served and the memory of these times will beautify the remainder of my life and give me peace and joy to my soul.

So much from your tender loving friend

Arnold Roschen.          

My most recent letter, which I received this year from the Rev. Mr. Storch on the eleventh of April, was dated Dec. 19, 1791; and, although I should have been glad to hear something else concerning the health of our friend, on the whole it contains very gratifying reports which indicate an increasing stability for the entire work of the church of that place. One must at least admit that, during the period of scarcely five years since the arrival in Helmstaedt of Mr. Nüssmann’s first letter, Providence has glorified itself in the most convincing manner in accellerating its progress toward perfection. He writes:

We pastors live in brotherly harmony and are at peace with our congregations. Last October we had our first semi-annual Assembly, which we [262] have firmly resolved to continue. As chairman we elected Mr. Nüssmann who still continues to be for us all such an excellent model of patience, contentment, and of undaunted and untiring zeal for service.

In addition to the four pastors of our group, who are known to you, we ordained and received into our association two others, viz.: Mr. Bernhard13 who serves four congregations in Guilford County,14 and Mr. Stanger, likewise a Wuertemberger, who has the supervision of four charges in Virginia on the New River.

I am in general still quite satisfied with my charges, just as they in turn also through their love and confidence manifest their satisfaction. The congregation of the Organ Church will erect a new building next summer, and, to be specific, it will be a stone church.15 The congregation of the Peint Church had already in the preceding year built a new and larger church.

Last spring I bought in Salisbury, a house, with about one and one half acres of land belonging to it, for 215 pounds (North Carolinian), which sum is to be raised within four years. Mr. Roschen likewise lives in a newly laid out town16 within the territory of his congregations.

My health has suffered considerably from the extensive riding in the intense summer heat. During the last two summers I served on the same Sunday two rather widely separated charges, and through the singing, preaching and especially the strenuous riding during the hot noonday hours I suffered a great deal. Among all the difficulties and hardships here the heat is the most aggravating. Throughout the entire year we have a large number of funeral sermons to give, for in the case of every death, even of the smallest child, a regular sermon must be preached.17

With this letter Mr. Storch also sent me a Census Report of the state of North Carolina taken from the official enumeration enacted by Congress in the summer of 1791. I should like to make this accessable to my readers, not only because it, in the estimation of the most competent judge, Prof. Ebeling, surpasses in accuracy the copy that has become [263] known elsewhere in Germany; but also because it has a direct bearing upon the estimation of the expected progress of all the institutions of that country, which with the rapid growth of the population,18 are more and more approaching perfection. To many of my readers, especially to Mr. Roschen, it will be a source of delight to be able to make a comparison between this retrospective view of North Carolina civilization and one of this region, which I shall insert under the designation “B.” It is the last report of our immortal “Swamp Commissioner,” Findorf. The little band of people, which under his anxious care developed into a new posterity, calls him—Father.

In addition to the four chests of books already enumerated in the first number of these North Carolina Church Reports, there was sent from Rostock, in March 1791, a fifth chest through the kind assistance of Prof. Ebeling, via Hamburg, addressed to Mr. Faber in Charleston. Besides the remainder of the text books still in stock in Liepzig, this chest contained the following, all paid from the fund:

1. Borowski’s Natural History of the Animal Kingdom, 10 vols., designated as a personal gift for Rev. Storch.
2. Wagnitz’—Ethics, in Illustrative Examples,—6 Parts.
3. Characterization of Educational Works in Germany.
4. Continuation of Beyer’s Magazine of Sermons.
5. Rintel’s—Theological Annals, 2 copies.
6. Beginning of the Literary Period of Helmstedt.
7. Richter’s—Rudiments of Surgery, Books I and II., as a gift by the Right Honorable Mr. Vogel.
8. Seile’s—Manual of Practical Medicine.
9. Vogel’s—Investigation of Causes, which make the recovery of drowned victims so infrequent.
10. Continuation of the Wiedeburg—Humanistic Magazine (given by the Editor).

In addition to the shipments from Leipzig mentioned in the first number (of these Church Reports) p. 13, there have been added:

Loskiel’s—History of the Missions of the Evangelical Brethren among the Indians of N. America, 2 copies, as gifts; one to Mr. Storch, and the other to Mr. Roschen.
New Hymnal of Anspach, and in connection with it, Heym’s Prayerbook, 50 copies, as a gift to Nüssmann’s Congregation. (For these people are very fond of this hymnbook,19 Mr. Nussmann wrote further, that they would also like to have a Prayerbook attached to the Hymnal, but unfortunately the Prayerbook of Anspach was not well adapted to their local conditions.

From Stade I also sent, last June, through the kindness, frequently mentioned, of Messrs. Nicolai and Brauer via Bremen, the following:

1. (As a gift from Prof. Moeller in Greifswald). The New Critical Reports of Greifswald, elaborately and carefully prepared, Vols. 1-16, from 1775 to 1790.
[264] 2. (As a gift from the Editors) Henke’s Church History, 3rd Part.
3. Gerkel’s Periodically Synchronized Tables for Universal History, 10 copies with illuminations and 10 copies in plain black.
4. By the same author, Synchronized Tables of the most recent History of European Nations, with Description, 8 copies.
5. Martini Commentatio philolog. critic. in Esaiae. Cap. LIII.
6. Pfannkuche’s Observationes philolog. & critic, in Psalmos, 2 copies.

Purchased from the Fund:

1. Schreber’s Edition of Ellis’ Description of the Dionaea Muscipula, with 3 illuminated Copperplates (Intended as a gift for the Rev. Mr. Storch, since due to his Description of “Dionaea,” mentioned above, this purchase was made.)
2. Wagnitz’ Appendix to Ethics, in Examples.
3. Sturm’s Sermons on the Gospels, edited by Wolfrath, Part I, 5 copies (of which subsequent parts are to follow.)
4. Continuation of Byer’s Magazine of Sermons, to Vol. 5. Number 5.
5. Seiler’s Psalms (From the Book of Devotion) and Acts, 2 copies of each.
6. Lembo’s Bibles, with Preface by Jacobi, 50 copies.

Furthermore there are stored with me to be sent next Spring, 1793:

1. Leiter’s Observations on the newest publications which deal with Religion, morals and the Improvement of the Human Race. 22 Vols. A gift for Mr. Storch.
2. Palm’s Devotional Observations, for every day of the year.
3. Wagner’s—Contents of his Gospel Sermons of the year 1753.
4. Voigts’ Rudiments of Geometry and Trigonometry. Bremen, 1792.
5. Sturm’s Sermons on the Gospels, Part II, 5 copies.
6. (From the Government Secretary, Mr. Haltermann) Baumgarten’s, Exposition of the Psalms. 2 vols.
7. Wiedeburg’s Magazine for Philology and Pedagogy, 1791, Numbers 1 to 4.
8. Continuation of the Helmstaedt Literary Periodicals and two copies of Rintel’s Theological Annals.
I am further expecting, prepaid from the Fund, 4 copies of Hoppenstaedt’s Songs for Public Schools, and 3 copies of Volbort’s Sermons on the Epistles.
Simultaneously with this supply there will follow another list of books, now kept in readiness, which I am to send in the name of the Helmstaedt Society, as a memorial gift, to the six pastors, who are now combined into a Synod, and to the two most active promoters of our enterprise in Charleston. The books are as follows:

1. Dodd’s Comfort for the Afflicted under every Distress, with suitable Devotions. (In English.)
2. Devotions of an anonymous Author, edited by Stockhausen.
3. Wendeborn’s Sermons. (For Mr. Nüssmann.)
4. Sturm's Observations on the Works of God in the Realm of Nature and Providence, for every Day in the Year. 2 vols.
5. Stuebner’s Memorabilia of the Dutchy of Blankenburg. 2 Vols. For Rev. Storch.
6. Huth’s Rudiments of Applied Mathematics, for the Rev. Mr. Roschen.
8. Sturm’s Communications with God in the Morning Hours.
9. Albert’s Sermons. 2 Vols.
[265] 10. Seiler’s Holy Scriptures, annotated.
     1. Old Testament in outline.
     2. New Testament in Luthers Translation.
     3. New Testament in new Translation for Rev. Ahrend.
11. Weitenkampf’s Rational Foundations for Comfort in the Saddest Experiences, 2 Parts, for the Rev. Mr. Bernhard.
12. Hoffmann’s Ten Books on Contentment Based on Reason and Faith, for Mr. Stanger.
13. Atterbury’s Sacred Discourses, for Mr. Faber.
14. Moeller’s For Families, especially in private Life.

A Gift for Mr. Gaebel, who will thereby recall several pleasant hours which he caused, during his two visits in Rostock, for a family that is showing a constant and sincere interest in his personal welfare, as well as in the progress of his work.

In Rostock I was unable to fulfill my promise given in the Report for the 4th number, p. 18. But on the other hand, I have here in Stade, after presenting the bill, for which I have a receipt from the Helmstaedt Society, dated Feb. 24, 1789, requested two friends, The Government Secretary, Mr. Haltermann, and the Captain of the Ships, Mr. Mueller, to verify the correctness of the later accounts to and including the final settlement.

Since I now, according to the balance made on the 17th of Nov. of this year, have disbursed about 3 Rententhalers more than I received, and in addition have several incidentals to pay, for which, however, I cannot expect any remuneration, I suppose I may consider this affair as settled, as far as I have been responsible for it.20

In general, however, I shall continue to remain obligated to you for convenient favors, as far as they may reasonably be expected of me. If I should find in the subsequent reports, coming to me from there, something especially remarkable, or worthy of public notation, I shall not fail to make it known in some of the current magazines, or through one of my learned friends. Furthermore, if there should occasionally be sent to me by naturalists, bookdealers, or any other altruistic friend some work of Natural History, of importance, either large or small, as a gift for the preachers of that place, in order to help them in their studies of nature, and perhaps thereby also to lure from time to time some North Carolina natural products into the gardens or Natural History Museums of Germany, I shall be glad to utilize my connections in Hamburg, Bremen and Charleston, for the safe transportation of such articles; [In which case, however] I presuppose that all charges be prepaid as far as Stade.21

[266] I wish now to express my feeling of gratitude to God, who through the coöperation of many good men, (among which I have a very vivid recollection of my four fellow-workers,) has given success to this undertaking, now happily executed and completed, and who within these six years has caused such manifold good to result from it. And I know of no more natural or fitting way to express this gratitude than to have printed [for circulation] again my Ordination Address for the Rev. Mr. Storch, in Helmstaedt on the 12th of March 1788; especially since various requests for this have already been made, and the supply has long since been exhausted.

____________


FOOTNOTES

1 To several botanists of whom I have inquired concerning a shrub by this name (judging from the word Briars, it ought to be some variety of a thorn) and even to one of my specialist friends in London, Dr. Brande, a planta sensitiva of the designation, Briars, is absolutely unknown. I shall therefore, herewith expressly ask Mr. Storch not only for a detailed description of this shrub in his letter, but also, if at all convenient, for some seed for his great benefactor in Harbke.

2 According to a letter of the above mentioned Dr. Brande, this plant grows in swampy soil. It has often been brought to London but does not seem to thrive well there and consequently is valued very highly. For a plant with less than five leaves they recently demanded five guineas. (Ellis’ Description of the Dionaea Muscipula, by Mr. Schreber, with three illuminated copperplates, is in the hands of specialists and Connoisseurs.)

3 If some editor should by this suggestion be stimulated to encourage my friend with an offer of a reasonable compensation for the excution of this accidental notion, I shall be glad to inform him of such an offer. His inquiry, in reality, contains nothing that might have reference to any sort of supplementary remuneration but was obviously a mere expression of his desire to show in some welcome literary communication that he still remembered his fatherland with love and appreciation.

4 See North Carolina Church Reports Number I. pp. 9 and 10.

5 Reports with the 3rd shipment of textbooks, pp. 6 and 7.

6 Number I, (as above) (which passage, by the way, may also serve as a receipt for the 20 guineas which should have been reported earlier in Charleston).

7 See Pamphlet I, pp. 12 and 13.

8 Report to the Third Number, pp. 25-27.

9 Neither Rev. Nicolai nor I, in our repeated letters, have been able to secure a copy of the account of this journey, which presumably was lost on the way. Since our letters may likewise not have reached their destination, I will here repeat the request that Rev. Roschen send us this description again and indeed in duplicate copies, on two different ships.

10 It is the region described in the 2nd chapter of the Helmstaedt Reports, p. 22ff. (In connection with the 3rd number of the Textbooks). It really has the name of Stinking Quarters.

11 No doubt Mr. Roschen is here speaking of the maple tree, (acer saccharinum) from which the Indians prepare their sugar. By the Iroquois it is called Sugar-tree, by the English Sugar-maple, and by Du Ree, Muenchhausen and others Zuckerhorn (Sugarhorn). In North America they distinguish two varieties, the hard, which has a very sweet sap, and the soft. (Cf. Loskiels History of Missions of the Evangelical Brethern among the Indians of North America, p. 92ff. The European Magazine, Mach. 1791, p. 214 f. The Hanoverian Magazine, 1781, Pt. 29.)

During the last two or three years the preparation of maple-sugar was given very careful attention and encouragement in Philadelphia for the purpose of establishing a new industry. By experiments and investigations it has been found that in the two states of New York and Pennsylvania alone there is a sufficient abundance of trees of this variety to supply the entire United States with this article of domestic necessity and of luxury; furthermore that the sugar is capable of such treatment and manipulation that in color, grain and taste in fully equals, if not indeed surpasses, the cane sugar of the West Indies. (European Magazine, as above).

In the most recent attempts on the part of the State of New York to build up and settle the rapidly developing Genesee District speculation was primarily directed to the utilization of this product, which is found there in such great abundance.

The sap is drawn by tapping the trees with an auger of from 1-2 to 1 inch in diameter, and by boiling it is made into sugar, syrup, molasses, vinegar and rum.

(cf. Reports on the Genesee District in the State of New York according to the English Edition published in 1791, translated and printed, without giving location—in December of 1791. Also:

The New Hanoverian Magazine, 1792, Pt. 31,—In both of these publications the entire process is described in detail).

Loskiel reports of instances in which a single tree furnished more than 300 cans (of which from 35 to 40 are required for a pound of sugar) of good sugar liquid, and an equal amount of syrup; and that such trees can be used profitably for about 8 or 9 years.

The Canadians make successful use of maple-sugar for colds, (Europ. Mag. as above, p. 186). In connection with this I cannot refrain from passing on to my readers the useful hint which the famous Professor of Botany in Leipzig, Dr. Hedwig, was kind enough to impart to me, viz.: that the sugar from the red maple (acer rubrani) even though much darker, is considered much more healthful and also better for lung trouble.

In Lower Saxony, too, maple sugar thrives, and the trees indeed grow much taller in cold regions than in the temperate zones. (Hanoverian Magazine as above, and of 1781).

May I here express the wish that these supplementary elucidations may accidentally prove the occasion for directing the industrial thoughts of our country-folk, and also of their teachers, to the planting and utilization of a tree which perhaps, at the place where now moor and swamps cause the foot of the wanderer to tremble, may afford our grandchildren shadow and health.

12 The Rev. Mr. Roschen is now the second in order of the men who may expect from the local Consistory, their promotion to some church appointment in their native land. To his encouragement, I can, at this occasion, publicly assure him that he is here still considered one of our own. Although in many respects I naturally cherish the wish that he there, too, in that extended field of activity and with the yearly growing prosperity of his congregation, might find increasing reasons to consider himself fortunate, even in material things, so that his longing to be back with us may never be coupled with any pain for him.

13 Report for the 3rd Number, page 14 and 22ff.

14 Stinking Quarters (I have, for sufficient reasons up to this time, exchanged this designation for the one above with reference to the entire district. And I hope that with an increasing degree of culture they will soon have reason to call this region, “The Flourishing Quarters”.

15 In a letter from Mr. Storch, kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Brouer in Bremen,—(written on various dates extending to Jan. 16, 1792.)—I found under date of July 3, 1791, the report that in Salisbury they had also built a very substantial building, which was furthermore the first house made of brick.

16 According to the letter referred to above, and likewise according to one that follows under date of July 3, 1791, Mr. Roschen sold the plantation inhabited by him for two years, and built a new house on a one-half acre lot in the newly laid out town mentioned above. At that time he and his family were well. (In the preceding winter and spring, however, all sorts of diseases had been rampant in that region). If one compares with these traces of gradual growth from small beginnings (taken from the first Number p. 26), the description of Camden, an excellent, well built, so called city, consisting of about thirty houses, there is reason for pleasant contemplation for one who ventures modest glimpses into the future.—Our swamp-settlement, Father Findorf’s imperishable monument! What manifold blessing may indeed eminate from that place after several hundred years,—if industries, inspired and directed by a genuinely christain spirit should begin to thrive with the new influx of settlers: And how respectable will be here then the standing, not only of the country pastor but also of the most humble village schoolmaster!

17 When I, in the 3rd edition of the Pilgrim’s Ritual, inserted in the appendix the Words of Consolation and the Index to Proverbs for the pastors of that place, I made it a point to try to give from memory helps for the constantly growing work under those conditions, and also to facilitate the alternating and more rapid framing of suitable sentences in the pastor’s public utterence. (Editor’s note.)

18 Here follows an extract of the Census Report of North Carolina, pp.28-29 in German Book, which, no doubt, is scarcely worth including, as it really contains nothing new, except a few variations from the official figures generally available in our Census Records. The second tablet contains, by way of comparison for Germans a report of the development of the swamps of the Duchy of Bremen. Otherwise it has no bearing whatsoever on the colony and life in North Carolina. (Translator’s note.) According to a note added by Mr. Storch Massachusetts had 470,000, and New York had 223,000 inhabitants.

19 See First Number (of these Reports) p. 45).

20 With regard to the obligations mentioned on pp. 14-15 in the 1st Number of these North Carolina Church Reports, which were kindly attended to by the Right Honourable Mr. Seiler and Deacon Lehmus of Rotenburg ob der Tauber, [I can report] that according to a kind letter of E. E. Rathes of that free imperial city, on the 27 of July inst. the legacy of Mr. Horlach with 1224 florins of Rhenish legal tender, was at my request sent to North Carolina in exchange notes via Bremen and Charleston.

21 A certain understanding judge of human nature and statesman supports me in the wish expressed at the conclusion of the 1st Number of these Reports, p. 44, and asks me to see to it that the German pastors in North Carolina make the closest investigations with regard to the remarks made by Rev. Roschen concerning the baneful influence upon German blood brought about by race mixtures [in marriage] and that they should at once send such reports to their native country.



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