North Carolina Office of Archives & History Department of Cultural Resources
Historical Publications Section The Colonial Records Project
Jan-Michael Poff, Editor
Historical Publications Section
4622 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699-4622
Phone: (919) 733-7442
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Last Updated 05/21/01




[Vol. 42 (1965), 139-152]

Though the first attempt to plant an English colony in America took place in North Carolina as early as 1585, it was three-quarters of a century before the first permanent white settlers came into the colony. When they did come, they came from Virginia rather than directly from England or the European continent. Just when the first permanent settlers entered what is now North Carolina has not been definitely established. By 1660, however, there were settlers on the Chowan River. After the first settlers arrived, there was, according to R. D. W. Connor, “no cessation in the slow but steady flow of settlers into the Albemarle region.”1 On March 24, 1663, Charles II of England granted a charter for a part of the new world which ultimately included the new settlement on the Chowan River to eight prominent Englishmen who had supported his restoration. By October of the next year, the eight Lords Proprietors had established the settlement as the County of Albemarle.

As years passed, settlement gradually but slowly moved southward, and in 1676 the Lords Proprietors, in an effort to encourage expansion, extended the jurisdiction of the Governor of Albemarle County to include “such settlements as shall bee made upon the rivers Pamleco and Newse.”2 By 1696 the new part of the colony was receiving enough attention and settlement to merit the establishment of the County of Bath, which included the Pamlico and the Neuse areas.3 In 1705 the Governorís Council, noting that the county had grown populous and was daily increasing, divided it into three precincts, each of which was to be allowed to send two representatives to the General Assembly.4 One of these precincts, Archdale, contained the area which, by 1712, had been renamed Craven Precinct. It was from Craven that Carteret Precinct was made in 1722.5

The political division of the southern part of Bath County into Craven and Carteret precincts occurred a number of years after the area had received its first settlers. In fact, it was not more than four years after Bath County had been created in 1696 that settlement reached the north banks of the Neuse River. Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr., states that “the colonization of this river must be placed back in the opening year of the eighteenth century and not inconceivably in the last of the 1690ís.”6 The Neuse River settlement grew steadily and, by about 1706, settlers had moved from its north banks, the first area settled, and were making their homes on its southern shores.7 Though these homesites were in what later became Carteret County, they cannot be considered a part of the settlement that became Beaufort. Situated on the Neuse River, they were, throughout the Colonial period, more closely connected with that river and with New Bern than with Beaufort.

The southward expansion of the settlement continued, and within two or three years after the Neuse had been crossed, settlers were making their homes on North and Newport rivers, which form the eastern and western boundaries of the peninsula on which Beaufort is located. Since these two rivers flow into what was then considered a part of Core Sound, settlers in this area were described as being “in Core Sound.”8 The town of Beaufort eventually became the center for the Core Sound settlement.

Farnifold Green obtained the first patent for land in the Core Sound area. The patent was granted December 20, 1707,9 and although Green did not live in the Core Sound area,10 other settlers were soon making their homes there. In 1708 John Nelson was granted a patent for 260 acres “in Core Sound on the north side of North River,”11 and, from that time on, was closely connected with that immediate area.12 Francis and John Shackleford moved into the area from Essex County, Virginia, sometime after 1705.13 Francis became active in the affairs of the Core Sound area by 1708,14 as did John by 1709.15 Both of these men received numerous patents before 171316 but settled on the west side of North River about four miles northeast of the present site of Beaufort.17 Other names connected with the Core Sound settlement prior to 1713 were John Fulford, Robert Turner, James Keith, William Bartram, Peter Worden (also spelled Wordin), Thomas Blanton, Thomas Lepper, Thomas Sparrow, Lewis Johnson, Richard Graves, Christopher Dawson, Enoch Ward, Thomas Cary, and Thomas Kailoe.18 Some of these, notably Cary and Lepper, lived elsewhere and were only speculating in land.19 Fulford, Ward, and Turner, though, were definitely Core Sound residents during that period.20

Indications are that the Core Sound settlement some importance before 1713. A notation on Christoph von Graffenriedís map of 1710 described Core Sound as being populated almost entirely by Englishmen who furnished seafood of all kinds to the settlers.21 In 1712 Captain Edward Adlard owned a sloop named the “Core Sound Merchant,”22 which indicated trade in the area before that date. A third indication of the importance of the Core Sound settlement before 1713 is that in 1712 in the midst of the Tuscarora War, the General Assembly ordered a garrison stationed at Core Sound.23 The purpose of the garrison, so Governor Thomas Pollock declared in 1713, was “to guard the people there from some few of the Cores [Indians] that lurk thereabout....”24

As soon as settlers moved into the Core Sound area, the port potential of the future site of Beaufort was recognized. December 20, 1707, Farnifold Green obtained a patent for the south end of the peninsula that extends between North River and Newport River.25 One month later, January 21, 1708, Peter Worden, then of Pamlico River,26 secured a patent for 640 acres on the west side of North River, part of which was included in Greenís patent.27 By October of that year, Worden recognized Greenís ownership, and on October 30, 1708, he cleared Greenís title by giving him a deed for “one certain Messuage or tenement of Land situate lying and being on the South side of North River, near to the Point of Land called Newport Town, with all its rights and privileges....”28 In seeking to acquire the land, evidently the two men had its port potential in mind since Topsail Inlet, now known as Beaufort Inlet, penetrated the barrier of the Outer Banks just two miles south. The site was named Newport Town and the name of the river that flows by it on its west side was changed from Core River to Newport River.29

Possibly the Tuscarora War of 1711-1713 delayed the establishment of a town within Topsail Inlet. Within seven months after the power of the Tuscarora Indians had been broken in March, 1713,30 a town was laidout on the southwest corner of the tract of land which Farnifold Green had obtained in 1707. In the meantime, Green had sold the land to Robert Turner, a merchant of Craven Precinct.31 Sometime prior to the fall of 1713, permission had been obtained from the Lords Proprietors to lay out a town by the name of Beaufort at this site, and on October 2, 1713, Robert Turner had Richard Graves, Deputy Surveyor, lay out the town. A plat was made of the town by Graves and recorded in the office of the secretary of the colony.32 Streets were named; allotments were provided for a church, a town-house, and a market place;33 and lots were offered for sale. On that date, October 2, 1713, Beaufort came into existence. Though minor alterations were made throughout the Colonial period, the main characteristics of the plan of the town never changed. The name Beaufort came from Henry Duke of Beaufort, one of the Lords Proprietors, who in 1713 was Palatine of Carolina, the chief position among the Proprietors. Turner Street obtained its name from Robert Turner, the father of the town. Moore Street was probably named for Colonel James Moore, who seven months before had brought an end to the Indian war. Pollock Street was named for Thomas Pollock, Acting Governor of the colony from 1712 to 1714. Both Queen and Ann Streets were named in honor of the then reigning monarch of England, while Orange Street honored the memory of William III of Orange who had preceded Queen Anne on the English throne. Craven Street was named in honor of William Lord Craven,34 another of the Lords Proprietors.35 When all of these names are considered together, the year 1713 is clearly indicated.

Though the town of Beaufort was laid out in 1713 with the permission of the Lords Proprietors, it was not officially incorporated by the Colonial government until ten years later. In the meantime, on October 19, 1720, Robert Turner had sold the 780 acres, which included the town lands, to Richard Rustull for 150 pounds sterling and had moved to the Pamlico River area,36 which might indicate that his investment was not yielding satisfactory returns. At least 39 lots were sold during this period,37 and in 1722, when Carteret Precinct was created, Beaufort was chosen to be the site of its courthouse.38 The only indication of the size of Beaufort during the period is found in connection with a visit made by the pirates, Edward Teach and Stede Bonnet, to Beaufort harbor in 1718. Charles Johnson, who described this visit in his History of the Pirates, spoke of a “poor little village at the upper end of the harbour....”39 Undoubtedly, this little village was Beaufort.

The act of the General Assembly of November 23, 1723,40 which officially incorporated Beaufort into a town, was based upon two considerations. The first was the fact that the town had already been laid out.41 The second was that the Lords Proprietors, upon the petition of the inhabitants of Core Sound, had “erected the same, into a Seaport, by the Name of Port-Beaufort...” and had invested the same with all privileges and immunities belonging to a seaport.42 The act of incorporation set up certain guides to the development of the town. For instance, the plan of the town was to be enlarged to 200 acres. The lots already sold were to be reserved to their owners; the places laid out for a church, a townhouse, and a market place were to be reserved. The rest of the land was to be divided into half-acre lots and sold for 30 shillings each with the provision that the buyer must build a house, not less than 15 by 20 feet, within two years. If this condition were not met, the title for the lot was to lapse and it was to be resold at the same price. Of the 30 shillings received for the first sale of the lots, 20 were to go to Richard Rustull, owner of the town land, and the rest to purchase great guns and to fortify the town. The money received for the resale of lots was to be used for the building of a church and for such other uses as the church wardens and the vestry should think fit. To insure that the town would be a suitable place to live, the act of incorporation also stipulated that all lots were to be cleared, that all streets should be at least 66 feet wide, that all nuisances were to be removed from the town, and that no lot was to be enclosed by a “common Stake Fense; but ... either paled in, or done with Post and Rails set up.” Furthermore, anyone caught quarreling or fighting in the town was to pay a fine of ten shillings, or spend 24 hours in the common jail, or sit in the stocks two hours. To encourage the settlement of the town, the act provided that all business affairs of the precinct be carried on there. For the same purpose, it seems, it also stipulated that all liquor made in the precinct could be retailed in the town by any inhabitant of the town without a license. To look after the affairs of the town, five commissioners were appointed who, along with the justices of the precinct court, were given authority to fill any vacancy that might occur among their number because of death. The commissioners were Richard Rustull, Christopher Gale, John Nelson, Joseph Bell, and Richard Bell.43

The act of incorporation also provided that Carteret Precinct was to have a church called the Parish of St. John. Twelve men were appointed to compose the first vestry: Christopher Gale, Joseph Bell, John Shaw, John Nelson, Richard Whitehurst, Richard Williamson, Richard Rustull, John Shackleford, Thomas Merriday, Enoch Ward, Joseph Fulford, and Charles Cogdail.44

The growth of the town of Beaufort proceeded slowly throughout the Colonial period, with the possible exception of the prosperous years after the end of the French and Indian War. Though the records of the sale of lots in Colonial Beaufort are incomplete, they do reveal enough to confirm this general statement. For instance, during the first five years after Beaufort was incorporated in 1723, the sales of only five lots were recorded.45 All of these occurred in 1723, and all of them lapsed at the end of a two-year period because the owners did not build on them.46 In December, 1725, Richard Rustull saved the investment that he had made in Beaufort by selling the town lands to Nathaniel Taylor, a resident of Carteret Precinct, for 160 pounds sterling.47

The year 1728 marked the beginning of a brief period during which speculation in Beaufort real estate reached a high point. In the four years after 1728, deeds were recorded for at least 21 lots for which there is no record of a previous sale.48 Sixteen lots which had lapsed because their owners had not met the building requirements were resold by the town commissioners,49 and five lots were transferred from one individual to another.50 A spirit of optimism was evident by 1728 when a new section was added to the town, and from that time on, deeds for lots in the town of Beaufort distinguished between Old Town and New Town.51 Still very few of these lots were saved, and in 1731, Governor Burrington described the town as one of “but little success & scarce any inhabitants.”52

As years passed, lots in Beaufort were transferred back and forth from one owner to another, but there seems to have been little overall growth. In 1737 John Brickell, writing in his Natural History of North-Carolina, described Beaufort as a town with a pleasant prospect, but it was “small and thinly inhabited.”53 Even as late as 1748, the year after the town had been captured and occupied for a brief period by a band of Spanish privateers,54 the list of taxables for the whole county numbered only 320.55 Approximately one-tenth of these lived in Beaufort which would set the number of taxables at only 32 in that year.

One of the most vivid accounts of Colonial Beaufort was given by a French traveler who visited the town in 1765. Arriving at Cape Lookout on March 13, he walked down the beach to a whalersí camp and persuaded some of them to take him over to Beaufort on the mainland. A short visit left him with a very unfavorable impression of the town. He described it as “a Small vilage not above 12 houses, the inhabitants seem miserable, they are very lazy and Indolent, they live mostly on fish and oisters, which they have in great plenty.”56 Though the Frenchmanís description of the town as a small village is accurate, his estimation of not above 12 houses appears rather conservative.57

The twelve years before the Revolutionary War seem to have been a period of substantial settlement in Beaufort. In the six years from 1765 through 1770, at least 37 lots, or pieces of lots, changed hands.58 Some of them, to be sure, had already been saved and were just being transferred to new owners. At least nine of the 37 lots, or pieces of lots, had buildings erected on them during that period.59 During this period buildings were first erected on many of the waterfront lots of the west end of the town.60

Beaufort grew steadily, and by the spring of 1773, the inhabitants petitioned the government of the colony that Beaufort be allowed representation in the General Assembly.61 The petition also made it clear that Beaufort could claim such representation as a right since the town had 60 families, the number required for such representation by a law of 1715.62 Justified as it might have been, Beaufortís petition was not granted, due it seems, to the efforts of Royal Governor Josiah Martin. Writing to Lord Dartmouth on April 20, 1773, he advised against giving Beaufort representation on the grounds that the assembly was already too large and that “though Beaufort is advantageously situated for commerce ... there are no persons of condition or substance in it, and the Trade that was formerly carried on through that Channel, is now derived almost entirely to this town,” that is, to New Bern.63

The people who lived in Beaufort during the Colonial period represented a variety of occupations; there were carpenters, tailors, blacksmiths, mariners, merchants, innkeepers, surveyors, joiners, coopers, shipwrights, shoemakers, and fishermen.64 There were also attorneys and schoolmasters.65 In 1728 John Clement purchased a lot and described himself as a preacher of the Gospel,66 but it seems that neither he nor any other minister lived in Beaufort during the Colonial period, and later his name appears in the Craven County records as a schoolmaster.67 Many of Beaufortís residents held positions in the local and Colonial governments, and those who were qualified to do so proudly added “Esquire” to their names.68 Others were closely connected with the work of the Anglican Church in the county.69

As a whole the inhabitants of Beaufort seem to have been a very benevolent people. The vestrymen of the parish were meticulous in their concern for the needy, especially orphans, the sick who had no one to care for them, and the old who could not care for themselves.70 On at least three occasions old Indians were provided for by the church.71 Even in their dealings with offenders, the jurymen who convened at Beaufort seem to have shown mercy as in the case of a certain Jane Sims who in 1736 was convicted of adultery. She was sentenced to “be taken to the Whipping post and there upon her Naked Back Receive thirty Nine Lashes well layed on....” However, the court, “upon the humble submission of ye sd Jane Sims ... Referred the Immediate Execution of ye above Sentence till another opportunity...” provided that she leave the precinct.72

Another example of the type of justice received in Beaufortís courts is seen in a case involving Ebenezer Harker, a resident of nearby Harkerís Island,73 but a man closely connected with Beaufortís history. In December, 1736, Harker appeared at a meeting of the court and proceeded to call Thomas Lovick, chairman of the court, a scoundrel and a cheat and many other abusive names, declaring that he was not fit to be judge of the court. The justices considered the matter immediately and ordered Harker to be brought before the court on the next day and answer contempt charges. In the meantime, the justices agreed on certain measures for the erection of a jail in Beaufort which was greatly needed. The records do not indicate that these two events were connected, but it is significant to note that on the next day Harker appeared before the court pleading for pardon which the court immediately granted.74

The jail which was provided for at this time was to be a heavy wooden structure made of sawed logs not less than four inches thick and dovetailed at the corners. It was to have two small windows with iron bars, a heavy door with a substantial lock, and covered with “good pine shingles well nailed.” It was also to be equipped with a “good, Strong Substantial pair of Stocks....” Daniel Rees was appointed to build the structure for £ 135.75 The records reveal that construction of this jail was immediately begun, and that it was soon completed.76

Beaufort did not have a resident minister during the Colonial period. Neither did it have a church building.77 In June, 1724, the church wardens bought from the town commissioners a “Lott of land ... together with the house now erected thereon ... being at present the house appointed for a Court House....”78 Evidently, this building was intended to serve both legal and spiritual purposes. Only three months later, though, a hurricane rendered it unusable by destroying its roof,79 and in the next year it was completely destroyed by fire.80 When the next courthouse was completed in 1728,81 the church started holding its services there and did so throughout the Colonial period.82 Usually, these services were conducted by a layman,83 but for certain occasions, such as administering the sacraments, ministers from other parts of the colony were employed to come to Beaufort.84 In 1755 the vestry arranged with the Reverend James Reed of Christ Church in New Bern to come at certain intervals, and from that time to the end of the Colonial period, these visits were rather regular.85

Between 1723 and 1728 James Winright, a surveyor from Albemarle County, moved to Beaufort and immediately became prominent in local affairs.86 In the ensuing years, he invested heavily in real estate in the town87 and held numerous offices in the local government.88 An indication of the stature of this citizen of Beaufort is seen in the fact that before he died in late 1744 or early 1745,89 he made his will stipulating that at the death of his wife all that he owned in Beaufort was to become an endowment for a school. The profits and rents on all of this property were to be used “for The encouragement of a Sober Discreet Quallifyed Man to teach ... at Least Reading Writing Vulgar & Decimal Arithmetick in theÖ town....” He also gave £50 sterling to be applied toward building a house on some part of his land to serve both as a schoolhouse and as a dwelling for the schoolteacher. He even went so far as to provide for a measure of academic freedom. The schoolmaster, he declared, “Shall not be obliged to teach or take under his Care any Schoolar or Schoolars Imposed on him by the Trustees herein Mentioned or their Succesors or by any other person, But Shall have free Liberty to teach & take under his Care Such and so many Schoolars as he Shall think Convenient....”90

The direct results of the gift by James Winright are not known. It is significant, though, that within five years there was a schoolhouse at the Straits, not far from Beaufort,91 and that by 1765 the vestry had appointed a man to employ three schoolteachers to serve the parish.92 Before 1776 Samuel Leffers, who described himself as a schoolmaster, was living in Beaufort.93

Throughout the Colonial period, Beaufort remained small and played a minor role in the over-all economy and politics of the colony. Though it was one of the colonyís few seaports, it was never as important as Edenton. These facts, however, do not detract from its significance. Through Indian attack, the destruction of tropical hurricanes, and the ravages of enemy privateers, the settlement within Topsail Inlet persisted to give Colonial Beaufort a significant place in the history of North Carolina.


* Mr. Paul is Professor of History at Chowan College, Murfreesboro.

1 R. D. W. Connor, The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods, 1584-1783, Volume I of History of North Carolina, by R. D. W. Connor, William K. Boyd, J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, and Others (Chicago and New York: The Lewis Publishing Company, 6 volumes, 1919), 24.

2 William L. Saunders (ed.), The Colonial Records of North Carolina (Raleigh: State of North Carolina, 10 volumes, 1886-1890), I, 232-233, hereinafter cited as Saunders, Colonial Records.

3 Saunders, Colonial Records, I, 472.

4 Saunders, Colonial Records, I, 629.

5 David Leroy Corbitt, The Formation of the North Carolina Counties, 1663-1943 (Raleigh: State Department of Archives and History, 1950), 74.

6 Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr., “Eighteenth Century New Bern: A History of the town and Craven County, 1700-1800,” Part I, “Colonization of the Neuse,” The North Carolina Historical Review, XXII (January, 1945), 9, hereinafter cited as Dill, “Colonization of the Neuse.”

7 Dill, “Colonization of the Neuse,” 13-14. See also, Saunders, Colonial Records, I, xi.

8 Carteret County Deed Books, Office of the Register of Deeds, Carteret County Courthouse, Beaufort, Deed Book A, 17, and passim, hereinafter cited as Carteret Deed Books; Beaufort County Deed Books, Office of the Register of Deeds, Beaufort County Courthouse, Washington, Deed Book 1, 129-130, and passim, hereinafter cited as Beaufort County Deed Books.

9 The year 1707 is not given, but the patent was recorded in the secretaryís office on January 7, 1708, indicating that the date of issue, December 20, was in 1707. Craven County Will Books, Office of the Clerk of Court, Craven County Courthouse, New Bern, Will Book A, 10, hereinafter cited as Craven Will Books.

10 Dill assigns Green to the area around Lower Broad Creek on the north side of Neuse River. Dill, “Colonization of the Neuse,” 8.

11 Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 158.

12 John Nelson was named as one of the first commissioners for the town of Beaufort a member of the first vestry of St. Johnís Parish. Walter Clark (ed.), The State Records of North Carolina (Winston, Goldsboro, and Raleigh: State of North Carolina, 16 volumes and 4-volume index [compiled by Stephen B. Weeks for both Colonial Records and State Records], 1895-1914), XXV, 206-209, hereinafter cited as Clark, State Records. He was also a justice of the peace for Carteret Precinct in 1722, 1724, and 1728. Minutes of the Carteret County Court of Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 1723-1789, 4 volumes, Archives, State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh, I, 3, 20-21, hereinafter cited as Carteret Court Minutes; Saunders, Colonial Records, II, 459, 526.

The exact site of Nelsonís residence is not known. There is no indication that he lived on the tract on North River, as he sold it slightly more than a year after its purchase. Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 157. He owned land near the south bank of Neuse River, and a deed of 1708 referred to him and his wife, Ann, as being of Neuse River. Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 116, 160. Dill maintains, however, that “This does not preclude the likelihood of their being in Core Sound at this time, for the designation Ďof Neuseí was often used loosely.” Dill, “Colonization of the Neuse,” 14n. The importance of the location of his residence is minimized by his prominence in the affairs of the area.

13 “Francis Shackleford received patents for land in Essex County, Virginia, in 1705. Land Grant Records of Virginia, Virginia State Library, Richmond, Land Grant Book IX, 695, 712.

14 On October 30, 1708, Francis Shackleford and Francis Dawson were witnesses to the transfer of a tract of land which later became the site of Beaufort from Peter Wordin to Farnifold Green. Beaufort County Deed Books 1, 109.

15 John Shackleford patented land on Newport River on November 14, 1709. Carteret Deed Books, D, 100-103.

16 Carteret Deed Books, A, 1; B, 50-51; D, 100-103; Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 225; Carteret County Records, Grants, 1717-1724, Archives, Book D, 2, 5-6, hereinafter cited as Carteret Grant Books.

17 See inset entitled “Port Beaufort or Topsail Inlet” on Edward Moseleyís “A New and Correct Map of the Province of North Carolina,” in William P. Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps with an Annotated Check List of Printed and Manuscript Regiona1 and Local Maps of Southeastern North America During the Colonial Period (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, c. 1958), Plate 52. The tract of land to which Moseley assigns Shackleford was first surveyed for Francis Shackleford prior to 1713, but his title for it lapsed. John Shackleford obtained a title for it on January 15, 1713/14. Carteret Grant Books, D, 5-6.

18 John Fulford, Minutes of the Craven County Court of Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 1712-1715, Archives, Book I, 1, hereinafter cited as Craven Court Minutes; Robert Turner, Craven Will Books, A, 11; James Keith, Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 158; William Bartram, Carteret Deed Books, A, 18-20; Peter Wordin, Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 108-109; Thomas Blanton, Carteret Grant Books, D, 5-6; Thomas Lepper, Craven Will Books, A, 27-28; Thomas Sparrow, Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 129-130; Lewis Johnson, Carteret Deed Books, A, 31; Richard Graves, Carteret Deed Books, A, 25; Christopher Dawson, Carteret Grant Books, D, 4-5 and Carteret Deed Books, A, 1, 27; Enoch Ward, Craven Will Books, A, 3, 27-28; Thomas Cary, Carteret Deed Books, A, 17; Thomas Kailoe, Carteret Deed Books, A, 28-29.

19 Cary lived on Pamlico River. Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr., “Eighteenth Century New Bern, A History of the Town and Craven County, 1700-1800,” Part III, “Rebellion and Indian warfare,” The North Carolina Historical Review, XXII (July, 1945), 297, hereinafter cited as Dill, “Rebellion and Indian Warfare.” Lepper lived on Adamís Creek on the south side of Neuse River. Dill, “Colonization of the Neuse,” 13-14.

20 Fulford lived near “the strait in Core Sound....” Craven Court Minutes, I, 1. Both Ward and Turner gave their names to creeks that bordered land bought by them during this period. Craven Will Books, A, 11, 27-28.

21 Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr., Governor Tryon and His Palace (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, c. 1955), opposite 32.

22 From a document reprinted in Francis L. Hawks, History of North Carolina from 1663 to 1729 (Fayetteville: E. J. Hale & Son, 2 volumes, 1858), II, 394, hereinafter cited as Hawks, History of North Carolina.

23 This garrison was stationed at “________ Shacklefordís plantation....” Saunders, Colonial Records, II, 2.

24 Saunders, Colonial Record, II, 45.

25 Craven Will Books, A, 10.

26 Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 110.

27 Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 108.

28 Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 109.

29 Newport River was first called Core River. Craven Will Books, A, 10. By 1712 it had been given its present name. Craven Will Books, A, 6.

30 Dill, “Rebellion and Indian Warfare,” 316.

31 Craven Will Books, A, 10-11, 13.

32 Permission for, the date of, and the men and circumstances connected with the laying out of the town are mentioned in most of the deeds for lots issued before the town was incorporated in 1723. See Carteret Deed Books, D, 91-92, and passim; Craven Will Books, A, 13-51.

33 Clark, State Records, XXV, 206.

34 For the distinction between William Earl of Craven and William Lord Craven, see Dill, “Colonization of the Neuse,” 6n.

35 For the significance of the names of Beaufortís streets, see A Brochure Sponsored by The Womanís Club of the Old Port of Beaufort, in the library of the late F. C. Salisbury, Morehead City.

36 Carteret Deed Books, B, 42-44.

37 Lots No. 3, 4, 5, 16, 17, 18, 52, 55, 62, and 65, Carteret Deed Books, A, 65 and D, 121, 277-278; Lots No. 1, 2, 6, 9, 10, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 46, 47, 48, 50, 56, 57, 58, 60, 66, and one unidentified lot owned by Captain John Clark, Craven Will Books, A, 13-20, 23, 28-32, 48-51.

38 Clark, State Records, XXIII, 102.

39 Arthur L. Haywood (ed.), A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pirates, by Charles Johnson (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd., 1955), 68-69.

40 Clark, State Records, XXIII, 334.

41 Clark, State Records, XXV, 206.

42 Clark, State Records, XXV, 206. This action was confirmed by the Governor and his council on April 4, 1722. Saunders, Colonial Records, II, 454.

43 Clark, State Records, XXV, 206-209.

44 Clark, State Records, XXV, 208-209.

45 Carteret Deed Books, A, 33-37.

46 All five of these lots (Lots No. 15, 22, 27, 13, and 14) were resold by the town commissioners with the usual stipulation that a house be built on them within two years. Carteret Deed Books, D, 90, 95, 400-401; H, 358-360.

47 Carteret Deed Books, C, 134-136.

48 Lots No. 8, 11, 12, 13, 42, 49, 51, 53, 61, 63, and two unidentified lots owned by Richard Rustull, all in Old Town (that part of the town laid out in 1713), and Lots No. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 19, 20, and 29 in New Town (see below note 51), Carteret Deed Books, D, 1, 6-9, 27, 29, 30-31, 38, 45-46, 55-56, 66-67, 85-86, 95, 114-115, 140, 149.

49 Lots No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 52, 62, and 63 in Old Town, and Lots No. 2 and 20 in New Town, Carteret Deed Books, D, 1, 4, 28, 58, 68, 80-81, 86, 90, 92, 94, 121.

50 Lots No. 8, 9, and 10 in Old Town, and Lots No. 2 and 20 in New Town, Carteret Deed Books, D, 25-26, 44-45, 47, 58, 82-83, 87, 108, 111-112.

51 Carteret Deed Books, D, 1, and passim.

52 Saunders, Colonial Records, III, 191.

53 John Brickell, The Natural History of North-Carolina with an Account of the Trade, Manners, and Customs of the Christian and Indian Inhabitants (Dublin, Ireland: Printed by James Carson, 1737), 8.

54 The records yield little information concerning the Spanish occupation of Beaufort. That the town was captured is verified by the caption “Men on Duty when the Town was Taken,” which precedes a list of names dated August 26, 1747. Clark, State Records, XXII, 263.

55 William K. Boyd, “Some North Carolina Tracts of the 18th Century: X, XI,” Part XI, “A Table of North Carolina Taxes, 1748-1770,” The North Carolina Historical Review, III (July, 1926), opposite 476.

56 “Journal of a French Traveller in the Colonies, 1765, Part I,” The American Historical Review, XXVI (July, 1921), 733.

57 By 1765, 23 deeds for lots had been recorded which, by internal evidence, indicated that houses had been erected on these lots. See Carteret Deed Books, D, 44-46, 92, 111-112, 121, 150, 175 and 444, 239-240, 278, 342-343; F, 381-382; G, 132-133; H, 97-98, 328-329, 350-351; I, 248-249.

58 Carteret Deed Books, G, 167-169, 186-187; H, 236, 269-270, 281-282, 300, 311-313, 315-318, 328-330, 332, 334-335, 350-351, 357-360, 420-421, 442-443, 445-447, 463-464, 480.

59 Carteret Deed Books, H, 70, 315-316, 332, 357, 445-446, 480; I, 246-247, 331, 354-355, 385.

60 Lots No. 21, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, and 33 had buildings erected on them between 1765 and 1770. Carteret Deed Books, H, 315-316, 357, 445-446, 480; I, 246-247, 331, 354-355, 385.

61 Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 636-637.

62 Clark, State Records, XXIII, 73-79.

63 Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 636-637.

64 Thomas Bedford, John Harris, and Richard Baker described themselves as carpenters. Carteret Deed Books, D, 27, 47, 140. William Owens and Joseph Bell were tailors. Carteret Deed Books, D. 27; H, 447-448. Andrew Frasure and Isaac Negus were blacksmiths. Carteret Deed Books, D, 28, 149. Arthur Mabson described himself as both a mariner and a merchant. Carteret Deed Books, D, 80-81, 89. Other merchants were Robert Turner, James Salter, John Clitherall, John Ronald, James Easton, Benjamin Appleton, and Jacob Shepherd. Carteret Deed Books, D, 58, 91, 330-331, 375; H, 332, 485-486. James Salter was also an innkeeper, as was William Dennis. Carteret Deed Books, D, 156-157; F, 380-381. James Winright was a surveyor. Carteret Deed Books, D, 87. William Mosely was a joiner. Carteret Deed Books, F, 381-382. Richard Rustull and Hector Hancock were both described as coopers. Carteret Court Minutes, I, 39, 41. Lawrence Boore, Robert Pew and Robert Walpole were shipwrights. Carteret Deed Books, H, 317-318; I, 135-136, 215. James Jannet was a shoemaker. Carteret Deed Books, I, 136-137. That there were fishermen living in Beaufort in this period is indicated by Governor Martinís description of it as “a small fishing Town....” Saunders, Colonial Records, IX, 33.

65 Henry Blurbon and David Handmare described themselves as attorneys at law. Carteret Court Minutes, I, 47, 49. Samuel Leffers was a schoolmaster. Carteret Deed Books, I, 251-252.

66 Carteret Deed Books, D, 4.

67 Alonzo Thomas Dill, Jr., “Eighteenth Century New Bern, A History of the Town and Craven County, 1700-1800,” Part IV, “Years of Slow Development,” The North Carolina Historical Review, XXII (October, 1945), 488.

68 Carteret Deed Books, D, 45, 111; G, 186. Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, Beaufort, 1742-1843, 3 volumes, Archives, I, 9, hereinafter cited as Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish.

69 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 3, and passim.

70 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 14, and passim.

71 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 40, 42, 53.

72 Carteret Court Minutes, I, 63.

73 Carteret Deed Books, E, 299-300. In the Colonial period, Harkerís Island was called Craney Island. It was first granted to Farnifold Green, who, on January 25, 1708/09, sold it to William Brice. On the same day, Brice sold it to Thomas Sparrow for £10, just double the amount he had paid for it. Beaufort County Deed Books, 1, 129-130. From Sparrow it was transferred to Thomas Pollock, who willed it to his son, George Pollock. George Pollock sold it to Ebenezer Harker in 1730. Carteret Deed Books, D, 120, 159-160.

74 Carteret Court Minutes, I, 64.

75 Carteret Court Minutes, I, 64.

76 It was needing repairs in 1742. Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 1. Provisions were made to replace it with a new one in 1756. Carteret Court Minutes, II, 227, 229, 278.

77 “In 1770 an act was passed for improving the town of Beaufort which stipulated that 10s. of every 30 received from the sale of lots in the town were to go “to the Church Wardens of the Parish of St Johnís for and towards building a Church in the said Town.” Clark, State Records, XXIII, 806. In 1774 David Lewis willed £100 proclamation money, toward “Building a Church in Beaufort Town....” Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 64. There is no evidence that such a building was erected in the Colonial period.

78 Carteret Deed Books, A, 97-98.

79 Carteret Court Minutes, I, 3.

80 Carteret Court Minutes, I, 9.

81 Carteret Court Minutes, I, 23.

82 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 25, 31, 34, 41.

83 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 3, and passim.

84 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 1, 5.

85 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 25, and passim. See also, Saunders, Colonial R.ecords, VI, 265-266, 326, 565, 1,047-1,048; VII, 99; IX, 244.

86 In 1723 he was described as “of Albemarle County.” Carteret Grant Books, D, 3. By 1728 he was a resident of Carteret Precinct. Carteret Deed Books, D, 1. In 1731 he described himself as a surveyor. Carteret Deed Books, D, 87.

87 Carteret Deed Books, D, 1, and passim. In 1742 Winright became the owner of all the town lands not previously sold. Carteret Deed Books, D, 301-302.

88 He was a town commissioner by virtue of the fact that he was owner of the town lands. He served also as treasurer of Carteret Precinct, Saunders, Colonial Records, IV, 403-404; vestryman, Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 1; clerk of court, Carteret Court Minutes, I, 73; and coroner, Carteret Court Minutes, I, 104.

89 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 5.

90 Secretary of State Papers, North Carolina Wills, 1663-1789, Archives, XXXV, 18.

91 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 13.

92 Vestry Books of St. Johnís Parish, I, 48.

93 Carteret Deed Books, I, 251-252.

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