North Carolina Office of Archives & History Department of Cultural Resources
Historical Publications Section Guide for Authors and Editors

Historical Publications Section
4622 Mail Service Center
Raleigh, NC 27699-4622
Phone: (919) 733-7442
Fax: (919) 733-1439



Guide for
Authors and
Editors


Last Updated 1/10/01

Historical Publications Home Page

Style and Format

This guide provides a quick reference to style and format of official writings prepared in the Division of Archives and History. It contains a number of changes from earlier editions and is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th rev. expanded ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993). Consult that publication for questions not covered by this guide. Refer to Webster's Third International Dictionary or Webster's collegiate dictionary for spelling and word division.

A bold-faced number with a rule or note sample indicates a relevant section in The Chicago Manual. Refer to that section for further information.

NOTE: Entries included in this guide may not refer to actual records. They are examples of style intended to aid authors and editors.

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Preparation of Copy

Leave manuscript margins of at least one inch on each side to allow space for editorial changes and questions.

Manuscripts and notes must be typed double spaced. Notes should appear on separate sheets at the end of the manuscript.

Send two hard copies of manuscripts and notes submitted for publication. The division requests word processor files on PC-compatible diskette as well. Give the name and version of the word processor used. On a word processor, do not interchange the letter el (l) and the number one (1) or the capital letter oh (O) and the number zero (0).

See The Chicago Manual, p. 112, for proofreaders' marks.

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Capitalization

  1. Capitalize titles only when they precede a person's name (President Lincoln, but the president). Lowercase appositive titles (former governor Scott; former governors Scott and Cherry). 7.16-7.24, 7.28, 14.5

  2. Capitalize academic degrees only when they follow a person's name (Robert Brown, Master of Arts). 7.26

  3. Lowercase terms for academic years (freshman; fall semester). 7.25

  4. Capitalize place-names (Raleigh) and geographic areas (Outer Banks; Coastal Plain; Piedmont; Mountains). Capitalize regions of the United States (Northeast; South; West) but lowercase regions of North Carolina (southeast; west). Lowercase adjectives derived from them (eastern United States; western North Carolina). 7.36

  5. Capitalize the following in Civil War contexts: Southern, Southerner, Northern, Northerner; Federal. Always capitalize Union (referring to the United States). 7.38, 7.40

  6. Capitalize geographic terms that form part of a place-name (Grandfather Mountain; Neuse River); and capitalize such terms in the plural when if, in the singular form and in the same position, it would be capitalized (Wake and Durham Counties; Blount and Wilmington Streets). 7.42-7.48

  7. Capitalize popular names (Tar Heel State; Deep South). 7.39

  8. Capitalize buildings, monuments, historic sites, and landmarks (State Capitol; Mordecai House; Washington Monument; Hope Plantation). 7.46-7.48

  9. Capitalize complete names of agencies, institutions, and associations (General Assembly; Division of Archives and History; North Carolina Supreme Court; University of North Carolina; North Carolina Literary and Historical Association). Lowercase incomplete names (the assembly; the division; the court; the university; the association). 7.50-7.56, 7.60-7.62

  10. Capitalize political parties, and uppercase Party (Democratic Party). Lowercase secessionist and unionist. 7.58-7.59

  11. Capitalize political and economic systems only if derived from a proper noun (Marxism, but communism). 7.58

  12. Capitalize historical and cultural periods if derived from a proper name (Jacksonian era; Victorian era). Tradition dictates capitalizing certain others (Gilded Age; Progressive Era; Roaring Twenties). 7.63-7.69

  13. Capitalize most historical and cultural events (Boston Tea Party; Great Depression). 7.68

  14. Capitalize full names of acts, treaties, and constitutions (Constitution of North Carolina; Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act). Lowercase incomplete names (the state constitution; the act). 7.70

  15. Capitalize religious denominations and sects (Methodist; Methodist Church). Capitalize church when referring to a specific congregation or building (St. James Methodist Church), or when referring to a specific denomination (the Baptist Church). 7.83-7.85

  16. Capitalize full titles of armies and other military units (Confederate States Army, but Confederate army; Thirty-ninth Regiment North Carolina Troops; a North Carolina regiment). 7.96

  17. Capitalize full titles of wars and battles (Civil War; Battle of Gettysburg). 7.97

  18. Lowercase an initial the in periodicals (the News and Observer; the North Carolina Historical Review). 7.136

  19. In titles of works, capitalize the first and last words and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions. Lowercase articles (a, an, the), coordinate conjunctions (and, or, for, nor), and prepositions (such as from, between, during, since, of), regardless of length, unless they are the first or last word of the title or subtitle. 7.127

  20. Lowercase parts of a book (introduction, chapter, index). 7.140-7.141

  21. Capitalize the names of specific racial, linguistic, tribal, religious, and other groupings of people. (Aborigine, Caucasian, Native American, Negro). 7.33

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Spelling and Italicization

  1. Use the first spelling and first plural in Webster's dictionary.

  2. Add an apostrophe and s to form the possessive of a noun ending in s (Burns's poems). 6.19-6.30

  3. Add s without an apostrophe to form the plural of numbers and letters used as words (1920s; three Rs). Add an apostrophe and s to form the plural of abbreviations with periods and of letters that would be confusing otherwise (Ph.D's; x's and y's). 6.16-6.17

  4. Hyphenate spelled fractions (one-half; two-thirds). Table 6.1 (pp. 223, 228)

  5. Refer to The Chicago Manual, 6.32-6.42 and Table 6.1 (pp. 219-231), for hyphenation of compound words.

  6. Italicize books and periodicals (War and Peace; Carolina Comments). Use roman type for an initial the in periodicals (the News and Observer; the North Carolina Historical Review). Put periodical articles in roman type within quotation marks (“Women's Role in Civil War Western North Carolina”). 7.133-7.136, 7.139

  7. Italicize ships, aircraft, plays, long poems, motion pictures, long musical compositions, and paintings and sculptures (Bonhomme Richard;Unto These Hills; Paradise Lost; Gone with the Wind; Tosca; American Gothic.) Put short poems, television and radio programs, and short musical compositions in roman type within quotation marks (“Anabelle Lee”; “Northern Exposure”; “Ode to Billie Joe”). 7.99-7.100, 7.143, 7.145, 7.148-7.154

  8. Italicize unfamiliar foreign words and phrases (vakfiye). 6.65, 6.69

  9. Italicize court cases, including v. (Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka). 7.72

  10. Italicize sic. Put other scholarly Latin words and abbreviations in roman type (passim). 6.70

  11. Spell African American open in both its noun and adjectival forms. Table 6.1 (pp.224, 228)

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Abbreviations

  1. Abbreviate civil and military titles before complete names (Pres. Abraham Lincoln; Sen. Furnifold M. Simmons). Spell them out with surnames or when they stand alone (President Lincoln; Senator Simmons; the president; the senator). 14.5

  2. Abbreviate social titles (Dr.; Mr.; Mrs.). 14.6

  3. Spell out Reverend and Honorable when preceded by the (the Reverend Henry Brown; the Reverend Mr. Brown [never Reverend Brown or the Reverend Brown]). Abbreviate them when used without the (Rev. Henry Brown [never Rev. Brown]). 14.7

  4. Spell out states in text and when they stand alone (North Carolina; Alabama). Abbreviate them in notes when they follow a city (Asheboro, N.C.; Birmingham, Ala.). Use traditional abbreviations (N.C.; Ala.; Tenn.) except with zip codes, which require two-letter postal abbreviations without periods (NC; AL; TN). 14.17

  5. Close up state abbreviations (N.C.; NC). Put a space between initials of a person (N. C. Jones). 14.2

  6. Spell out companies in text (Roberts and Company; Parker Brothers). Abbreviate them in notes (Roberts and Co.; Parker Bros.). Drop Inc. and Ltd. from company names. 14.12-14.13

  7. Abbreviate associations and government agencies after the first spelled-out use. Use all capitals with no space between letters (National Endowment for the Humanities, NEH; Young Men's Christian Association, YMCA). 14.15

  8. Spell out months and days of the week. 14.28-14.29

  9. Use full words rather than abbreviations or symbols for measures such as percent, degrees, feet, inches, meters, pounds (weight), ounces, quarts, bushels, acres, miles. 8.12

  10. Replace ampersands (&) with and except in quotations. 7.129, 14.12-14.13, 15.162-15.163

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Punctuation and Quotations

  1. Put a comma before a conjunction joining the last two elements in a series of three or more (copper, silver, and gold). 5.57

  2. Omit the use of commas with Jr. and Sr. following names. II, III, IV take no commas. 8.55

  3. Make an em dash by entering two hyphens without spaces (like--this). 5.115, Table 13.1 (p. 453)

  4. Square brackets replace parentheses within parentheses (like this [to give an example]) and enclose editorial insertions in quoted material (“He [would] like to learn to rede [sic].”). 5.128-5.129, 10.65-10.66

  5. Put commas and periods inside double quotation marks. Put question marks and exclamation points inside quotation marks when part of the quoted material. Put colons and semicolons outside quotation marks. 5.11, 5.20, 5.28, 5.86, 5.96, 5.104

  6. Single quotation marks replace double quotation marks within double quotation marks (“'There was a ship,' quoth he.”). 10.26

  7. Enclose run-in quoted material in quotation marks. Set off as a block quote without quotation marks material longer than ten typed lines. Enclose in double quotation marks any quotation within a block quote. 10.9-10.10, 10.20-10.21, 10.28

  8. Ellipsis points indicate words omitted in quoted material. Separate ellipsis points from each other, from the text, and from contiguous punctuation by spaces. Three dots show an omission within a sentence or sentence fragment. Four dots--a period with no space preceding it, followed by three spaced dots--show the omission of (1) the last part of a sentence; (2) the first part of the next sentence; or (3) a whole sentence or more. Enclose in square brackets any capital letter lowercased in the original. (“Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth . . . a new nation. . . . [W]e are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether the nation . . . can long endure.”) Retain a question mark or exclamation point ending a sentence in the original and follow it with three spaced dots. 10.13-10.16, 10.48-10.62

  9. Use no ellipsis points (1) before or after a run-in quoted sentence or fragment; (2) before a block quote beginning with a complete sentence or with a fragment that completes a sentence in the text; (3) after a block quote ending with a complete sentence. 10.61, 10.64

  10. Check quotes and their references carefully for accuracy.

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Numbers and Dates

  1. Spell whole numbers from one through ninety-nine (seventeen; eighty-four). But in a series or cluster use figures (Their ages were 84, 79, 68, 54, 47, 35, and 17.) 8.3

  2. Spell whole numbers from one through ninety-nine followed by hundred, thousand, million, billion (seventeen hundred; eighty-four thousand; seventeen million; eighty-four billion). If a number between one thousand and ten thousand can be expressed in terms of hundreds, spell it that way (seventeen hundred; eighty-four hundred). Use figures for all other numbers (284; 175,438; 284,609), except in round numbers spell thousand, million, billion (284 thousand; 175 million; 284 billion). 8.1-8.7

  3. Spell any number that begins a sentence (One hundred twenty-five men and 203 women received degrees). 8.9-8.10

  4. Use commas in numbers of four or more figures (2,345; 23,456) except in page numbers, addresses, four-digit years, and document numbers (page 2345; 23456 Jones Street; 1992 A.D.; Serial 10575). 8.41, 8.65

  5. Repeat all digits in inclusive numbers (375-384). This practice varies from The Chicago Manual. 8.68-8.73

  6. Use arabic figures with chapter (chapter 3) and for volume numbers (volume 4). 7.141, 15.210

  7. Ordinal numbers in text follow the above rules (fifth; 967th). Use d for second and third (122d; 223d). 8.4

  8. Spell fractions having denominators of ninety-nine or less (one-half; two-thirds). Use figures for fractions having denominators greater than ninety-nine (1/100; 3/574). 8.13

  9. Use figures for quantities consisting of both whole numbers and fractions (8 1/2 by 11 3/4 inches). 8.14

  10. For money, if the number is spelled, spell the unit of currency (forty-seven cents; two dollars). If the number is figures, use the currency symbol ($279.50; $732; £840). Use ciphers for whole dollars only when they appear in the same context with fractional amounts (They paid $345.89 and $367.00, respectively [but $367 when used alone].). 8.23-8.31

  11. Spell out times of day in even, half, and quarter hours (three o'clock; half past six; a quarter of four; midnight). Use figures to emphasize an exact time (7:42). 8.47

  12. Use figures with A.M. and P.M. (8:10 A.M.; 11:25 P.M.). Use ciphers with figures designating even hours (9:00 A.M.). 8.47-8.48 [A.M. and P.M. should be represented by small caps but this font is not available for Web use.]

  13. Write dates as month-day-year and set off the year with commas (January 1, 1992, brought rain.). Use no internal punctuation with month-year or season-year dates (January 1992; spring 1993). 8.36, 8.39

  14. Use to with from in inclusive numbers (from 1860 to 1864, never from 1860-1864). 5.115

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Notes

  1. Put note numbers at the end of a text sentence. One note should not apply to more than one text paragraph. 15.9, 15.18

  2. Include publishers of books in a full reference. 15.77, 15.151

  3. After the first citation, use shortened references rather than Latin abbreviations such as ibid. and op. cit. Abbreviated titles may replace short titles but must appear in parentheses at the end of the first reference (hereafter cited as Mass. Records [for Records of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England]). 15.248-15.257

  4. When a note contains the source of a quotation as well as other material, give the quote source first. When a note documents several quotes, give the citations in order of their appearance in the text. 15.18, 15.30

  5. Notes should not exceed one paragraph in length.

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Books

  1. Two authors:

    • Ina Woestemeyer Van Noppen and John J. Van Noppen, Western North Carolina since the Civil War (Boone, N.C.: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1973), 87. 15.85

  2. Three authors:

    • Jeffrey J. Crow, Paul D. Escott, and Flora J. Hatley, A History of African Americans in North Carolina (Raleigh: Division of Archives and History, Department of Cultural Resources, 1992), 12. 15.86

  3. More than three authors:

    • Bernard Bailyn, et al., The Great Republic: A History of the American People (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1977), 485. 15.87-15.88

  4. Editor in place of author:

    • H. H. Rowley, ed., The Old Testament and Modern Study (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951), 50. 15.96

  5. Editor different from author:

    • John Stuart Mill, Autobiography and Literary Essays, ed. John M. Robson and Jack Stillinger (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980), 15. 15.98-15.100

  6. Edition other than the first:

    • Jack Temple Kirby, Media-made Dixie: The South in the American Imagination, rev. ed. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986), 56. 15.132

    • Hugh Talmage Lefler and Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State, 3d ed. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973), 103-105. 15.132

  7. Reprint:

    • John Brickell, The Natural History of North-Carolina (1737; reprint, Murfreesboro, N.C.: Johnson Publishing Co., 1968), 8-9. 15.178-15.182

    • Albert Schweitzer, J. S. Bach, trans. Ernest Newman, 2 vols. (1911; reprint, New York: Dover Publications, 1966), 1:265. 15.178-15.182

  8. Privately published:

    • Stephen E. Bradley Jr., comp., The Deeds of Northampton County, North Carolina, 1759-1774 (Keysville, Va.: the compiler, 1990), 96-97. 15.151

  9. Publication facts missing:

    • Eleanor Pratt Covington McSwain, My Folk: The First Three Hundred Years, 1670-1970 (n.p., 1972), 215. [place and publisher missing] 15.151, 15.159, 15.164

    • Annie Merle W. Elam, comp., 1860 Federal Census of Bladen County, North Carolina (Bladenboro, N.C.: Southeast Research, n.d.), 78-79. [date missing] 15.153, 15.175

    • John Burton, A Deadline to Remember (n.p., n.d.), 21. [place, publisher, date missing] 15.155, 15.183

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Multivolume Books

  1. One title:

    • Kemp P. Battle, History of the University of North Carolina, 2 vols. (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Co., 1908-1912), 2:346. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

    • Adelaide L. Fries et al., eds., Records of the Moravians in North Carolina, 11 vols. (Raleigh: North Carolina Historical Commission, 1922-1969), 3:245-246. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

    • Sarah McCulloh Lemmon, ed., The Pettigrew Papers, 2 vols. to date (Raleigh: Division of Archives and History, Department of Cultural Resources, 1971-), 2:341. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

  2. Each volume titled separately:

    • Allan Nevins, The Organized War, 1863-1864, vol. 3 of The War for the Union (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971), 333. 15.138, 15.148

  3. Series:

    If the book cited is part of a series, omit the name of the series if the work can be located without it.

    • George Brown Tindall, The Emergence of the New South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967), 123. [This book is part of the series A History of the South.] 15.145

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Reference Works

  1. Alphabetical:

    • Dictionary of North Carolina Biography, s.v. “James Horace.” 15.293

    • Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. “Wadsworth, Jeremiah.” 15.293

    • Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1989, s.v. “Vance, Zebulon Baird.” 15.293

    • Who's Who in America, 1974-1975, s.v. “Nixon, Richard Milhous.” 15.293

    • Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. “original package.” 15.293

  2. Not alphabetical:

    • The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 5:328. 15.293

    • Samuel A. Ashe, Stephen B. Weeks, and Charles L. Van Noppen, eds., Biographical History of North Carolina, 8 vols. (Greensboro: Charles L. Van Noppen, 1905-1917), 5:158. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

    • North Carolina Manual, 1913, 130. 15.293

    • John L. Cheney Jr., ed., North Carolina Government, 1585-1979: A Narrative and Statistical History (Raleigh: Department of the Secretary of State, 1981), 555. 15.83

  3. Military rosters:

    • Louis H. Manarin and Weymouth T. Jordan Jr., comps., North Carolina Troops, 1861-1865: A Roster, 13 vols. to date (Raleigh: Division of Archives and History, Department of Cultural Resources, 1966-), 9:125. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

    • John W. Moore, Roster of North Carolina Troops in the War between the States, 4 vols. (Raleigh: State of North Carolina, 1882), 3:271. 15.136, 15.141, 15.151

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Newspapers

  • Do not give titles of newspaper articles; most historical writings do not include them. This practice varies from The Chicago Manual, 15.234-15.235, 15.238-15.239.

    • New York Times, July 17, 1892.

  • Give the town in parentheses if not part of the title.

    • News and Observer (Raleigh), January 31, 1962.

  • For out-of-state newspapers, give the state in parentheses if not part of the title.

    • Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle, July 12, 1912.

  • For out-of-state newspapers, give the town and state in parentheses if the town is not part of the title.

    • News and Courier (Charleston, S.C.), July 31, 1912.

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Journals, Magazines, Essays

  1. Journal and magazine articles:

    • William C. Harris, “Lincoln and Wartime Reconstruction in North Carolina, 1861-1863,” North Carolina Historical Review 63 (April 1986): 151. 15.204

    • Porte Crayon, “North Carolina Illustrated: The Gold Region,” Harper's New Monthly Magazine 15 (August 1857): 293. 15.204, 15.231

    • E. W. Caspari and R. E. Marshak, “The Rise and Fall of Lysenko,” Science, July 16, 1965, 275-276. 15.231, 15.233

  2. Book reviews:

    • Joe A. Mobley, review of Thinking Back: The Perils of Writing History, by C. Vann Woodward, North Carolina Historical Review 63 (July 1986): 405. 15.244

  3. Parts of books:

    • Raymond Gavins, “The Meaning of Freedom: Black North Carolina in the Nadir, 1880-1900,” in Race, Class, and Politics in Southern History: Essays in Honor of Robert F. Durden, ed. Jeffrey J. Crow, Paul D. Escott, and Charles L. Flynn Jr. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), 192-193. 15.120

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Federal Government Sources

  1. Congressional materials:

    • Protest from Charles Henry Foster in Relation to the Election of Jennings Pigott to Congress from the Second District of North Carolina, 37th Cong., 3d sess., 1862-1863, H. Doc. 14, 1-3. 15.327-15.333

    • Joint Session of Congress, Declaration of a State of War with Japan, Germany, and Italy, 77th Cong., 1st sess., 1941, S. Doc. 148 (Serial 10575). 15.327-15.333

    • Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, The Mutual Security Act of 1956, 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956, S. Rept. 2273, 5. 15.333

    • Senate Journal, 14th Cong., 1st sess., December 7, 1819, 9-19. 15.333

    • Congressional Record, 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, 72, pt. 10:10828-10830. 15.333

    • Congressional Globe, 39th Cong., 2d sess., 1867, 39, pt. 9:9505. 15.333

  2. Laws:

    • United States Statutes at Large, 88:1821, c. 131. 15.350, 15.353, 15.357

    • United States Code, 1946 ed., 26:12. 15.351, 15.355

  3. Court records:

    • Bridges v. California, United States Reports 314 (1941): 252. 15.318, 15.370

    • United States v. Stephen Skinner, April 1804, 1:38, North Carolina District Court Minutes, Records of District Courts of the United States, Record Group 21, National Archives Atlanta Branch, East Point, Ga. (microfilm, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh.) [Cite the repositories as National Archives Atlanta Branch and State Archives in subsequent references.] 15.318, 15.374

  4. Census records:

    • Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1790: North Carolina (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1908), 125. 15.366

    • Seventh Census of the United States, 1850: Sampson County, North Carolina Population Schedule, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (microfilm, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh). 15.287, 15.374

    • Eighth Census of the United States, 1860: Agriculture (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1864), 154-155. 15.366

  5. Military references:

    • The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, ser. 1, 49, pt. 1:647. 15.293, 15.333

    • Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion, ser. 1, 9:633. 15.293, 15.333

    • Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers Who Served during the Civil War, Record Group 109, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (microfilm, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh). 15.287, 15.374

    • J. J. Van Horne to Acting Assistant Adjutant General for the Department of the South, October 1, 1867, Letter Book 174/375, p. 25, Letters Received, Department of North Carolina, Records of the United States Army Continental Commands, Record Group 393, National Archives, Washington, D.C. 15.374

    • Horace James to Fred H. Beecher, September 20, 1865, Letters Received, Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of North Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, Record Group 105, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (microfilm, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh.) 15.287, 15.374

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State Government Sources

  1. Documentary volumes:

    • William L. Saunders, ed., The Colonial Records of North Carolina, 10 vols. (Raleigh: State of North Carolina, 1886-1890), 5:346. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

    • Walter Clark, ed., The State Records of North Carolina, 16 vols. (11-26) (Raleigh: State of North Carolina, 1895-1906), 23:346. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

    • William S. Price Jr., ed., North Carolina Higher-Court Records, 1702-1708, vol. 4 of The Colonial Records of North Carolina [Second Series], ed. Mattie Erma Edwards Parker, William S. Price Jr., and Robert J. Cain (Raleigh: Division of Archives and History, Department of Cultural Resources, 1974), 357. 15.147-15.148, 15.174

    • Jan-Michael Poff, ed., Addresses and Public Papers of James Grubbs Martin, Governor of North Carolina, 2 vols. (Raleigh: Division of Archives and History, Department of Cultural Resources, 1992-1996), 1:51. 15.141, 15.151, 15.173

  2. Legislative records:

    • Journal of the Senate of North Carolina, 1965, 113-114. 15.333

    • Journal of the House of Representatives of North Carolina, 1965, 152-153. 15.333

    • House Bill 12, An Act to Amend the Twenty-sixth Section of the Sixty-sixth Chapter of the Revised Code, House Bills, Session of 1866-1867, General Assembly Session Records, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

    • Petition from Burke County, November 1840, Petitions, Session of 1840-1841, General Assembly Session Records, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

  3. Laws:

    • Public Laws of North Carolina, 1935, c. 154, s. 1. 15.312, 15.315, 15.317, 15.351

    • Private Laws of North Carolina, 1845, c. 30, s.2. 15.312, 15.315, 15.317, 15.351

    • Session Laws of North Carolina, 1943, c. 168, s. 3. [Public Laws and private laws were retitled session laws beginning with the 1943 legislative session.] 15.312, 15.315, 15.317, 15.351

    • Revised Statutes of the State of North Carolina, 1836-1837, vol. 1, c. 150, ss. 3-4. [The state has revised its laws repeatedly. The revisions have appeared under various titles, designated as revised, digested, or consolidated laws. Use the title of the volume cited. If no chapter number is given, cite the page number in its place.] 15.312, 15.315, 15.317, 15.351

    • General Statutes of North Carolina, c. 116-36. 15.312, 15.315, 15.317, 15.351

  4. Court records:

    • State v. Thomas J. Miller, North Carolina Reports 19 (1847): 275. 15.318

    • James A. Bryan and Wife v. Washington Spivey et al., Case 16232, Supreme Court Original Cases, 1800-1909, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

  5. Governor's office records:

    • James A. Seddon to Zebulon B. Vance, January 8, 1863, Zebulon B. Vance, Governors Papers, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

    • Zebulon B. Vance to George V. Strong, January 1, 1863, Zebulon B. Vance, Governors Letter Books, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

  6. Land grants:

    • Land grant to John Doe, March 21, 1710, Book 6, p. 114, Land Grant Records of North Carolina, Office of the Secretary of State, Raleigh. 15.374

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County Government Sources

  1. Commission minutes:

    • Minutes, June 7, 1870 (microfilm), Iredell County Board of Commissioners, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

  2. Court records:

    • Apprenticeship of William Crain to William White, April 13, 1796, Minutes of the Cumberland County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. [If no specific date is given, include the month or season and year of the court term and a page number if available.] 15.374

    • State v. Mingo Smallwood alias Mingo Jones, Spring Term 1869, pp. 39-40, Craven County Superior Court Minutes, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. [If no specific date is given, include the month or season and year of the court term and a page number if available.] 15.374

    • Comfort Jones v. Thomas Tolson, 1809, Craven County Civil Action Papers, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

  3. Deeds:

    • Mary Polk to James Curtis, October 4, 1835, Book 13, p. 516 (microfilm), Wake County Deeds, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

  4. Wills and estates:

    • Will of Adam Smith, January 20, 1846, Orange County Original Wills, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

    • Will of Adam Smith, January 20, 1846, Book 7, p. 56 (microfilm), Orange County Wills, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

    • Estate of John Johnson, 1846, Orange County Estates Records, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

  5. Miscellaneous records:

      Petition of Alexander and Lydia Stewart to Emancipate a Mulatto Boy Slave Named John, March 12, 1795, Slaves and Free Negroes, Craven County Miscellaneous Papers, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.374

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Private Manuscript Collections

  1. Letters:

    • Allen Johnson to William A. Graham, January 9, 1865, William Alexander Graham Papers, Private Collections, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. [Subsequent citation to distinguish from Governors Papers: Jonathan Worth to William A. Graham, March 9, 1867, Graham Papers, Private Collections.] 15.284

    • Jacob Billikopf to John J. Parker, March 2, 1949, John Johnston Parker Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. [Cite the repository as Southern Historical Collection in subsequent references.] 15.284

    • Mark Squires to Furnifold M. Simmons, January 8, 1925, Furnifold McLendel Simmons Papers, Special Collections, Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Durham. [Cite the repository as Duke Special Collections in subsequent references.] 15.284

  2. Diaries and account books:

    • Diary of James Gwyn, April 1, 1865, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. 15.279, 15.284

    • Entry of October 1, 1815, Personal and Plantation Expense Memorandum Book, 1815-1816, Hayes Collection, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. 15.279, 15.284

  3. Essays and speeches

    • Thomas B. Cowan, “History of the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen,” n.d., Fellowship of Southern Churchmen Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. 15.284

    • Clarence H. Poe, “The Greater North Carolina--How May It Be Developed?,” speech, 1915, Clarence H. Poe Papers, Private Collections, State Archives, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh. 15.279, 15.284

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Theses and Dissertations

  1. Unpublished theses:

    • Julian P. Boyd, “The County Court in Colonial North Carolina” (master's thesis, Duke University, 1926), 69-71. 15.270-15.272

  2. Unpublished dissertations:

    • Joseph F. Steelman, “The Progressive Era in North Carolina, 1884-1917” (Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1955), 36. 15.270-15.271, 15.275

  3. Microfilm:

      James Logan Hunt, Marion Butler and the Populist Ideal, 1863-1938 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International, 1990), 24. 15.150, 15.270-15.272

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Other Unpublished Sources

  1. Research papers and reports:

    • Mary K. Anglin, “Errors at the Margins: Rediscovering the Women of Antebellum Western North Carolina” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Historical Association, Fort Worth, Tex., November 1991), 14. 15.273-15.275

    • Wilson Angley, “A Brief Maritime History of the Oriental Area of Pamlico County” (report, Research Branch, Division of Archives and History, Raleigh, 1987), 2. 15.273

  2. Interviews and personal communications:

    • Isaac Long, interview with author, James City, N.C., March 24, 1980. 15.265

    • Nelle Morton, interview by Dallas Blanchard, June 25, 1983, transcript, Southern Oral History Collection, Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. 15.265

    • John P. Smith, letter to author, April 4, 1980. 15.265

    • Hazel Williams, telephone conversation with author, May 21, 1990. 15.265

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